Adopting an action-oriented approach, Common European Framework of Reference for Languages (henceforth CEFR) (Council of Europe, 2001) can be considered as a general framework for language learning, teaching, and assessment across Europe. With its descriptors of language skills across proficiency levels, CEFR can be utilized as a guideline for language learners, teachers and assessors. Bearing this in mind, this paper aims to delve into pronunciation from a CEFR-oriented perspective by (i) exploring the skills and competences required to be considered as proficient language users with specific reference to phonetics and phonology on part of language learners and (ii) describing the standards of teaching profession with regard to pronunciation and its instruction in the light of CEFR and the standards of EFL/ESL Teachers of Adults (TESOL, 2008) with direct implications for teacher education contexts. While doing this, this paper further aims to contribute to the literature of teacher education in terms of pronunciation pedagogy with considerable implications with reference to previous research through further discussion.
Eylem yöneltimli bir yaklaşımı benimseyen Avrupa Ortak Ölçüt Çerçevesi (AOÖÇ) (Avrupa Konseyi, 2001), Avrupa’da dil öğrenimi, öğretimi ve değerlendirmesi için genel bir çerçeve olarak düşünülebilir. Yeterlik seviyelerine göre dil becerilerindeki tanımlayıcılarıyla, AOÖÇ (Avrupa Konseyi, 2001) dil öğrenenler, öğretenler ve değerlendirenler tarafından kılavuz olarak kullanılabilir. Bunu göz önüne alarak, bu makale (i) dil öğrenenler açısından sesbilim ve sesbilgisine özel atıfta bulunarak yetkin bir dil kullanıcısında görülmesi gereken beceri ve yeterlilikleri keşfetmeyi (ii) öğretmen eğitimi bağlamına doğrudan etkileri olan AOÖÇ (Avrupa Konseyi, 2001) ve EFL / ESL Yetişkinler Öğretmeni (TESOL, 2008) standartlarına göre sesletim ve öğretimi ile ilgili olarak öğretmenlik mesleğinin standartlarını betimleyerek AOÖÇ(Avrupa Konseyi, 2001) bakış açısından sesletimi derinlemesine araştırmayı amaçlıyor. Bu makale ayrıca daha fazla tartışma yoluyla önceki araştırmalara atıfta bulunularak önemli sonuçlar doğuracak şekilde sesletim pedagojisi açısından öğretmen eğitimi literatürüne katkıda bulunmayı amaçlamaktadır.
Anderson-Hsieh, J., Johnson, R., & Koehler, K. (1992). The relationship native speaker judgments of nonnative pronunciation and deviance prosody, and syllable structure. Language Learning, 42(4), 529-555.
Baker, A. (2014). Exploring teachers' knowledge of second language pronunciation techniques: teacher cognitions, observed classroom practices, and student perceptions. TESOL Quarterly, 48(1), 136-163.
Baker, A., & Murphy, J. (2011). Knowledge base of pronunciation teaching: staking out the territory. TESL Canada Journal, 28(2), 29-50.
Bradlow, A. R. (2008). Training non-native language sound patterns: lessons from training Japanese adults on the English. Phonology of Second Language Acquisition, 36, 287-308.
Brazil, D., Coulthard, M., Johns, C.(1980). Discourse intonation and language teaching. London: Longman.
Brown, A. (2014). Pronunciation and phonetics: A practical guide for English language teachers. New York: Routledge.
Brown, A. (1992). Twenty questions. In: Brown, A. (Ed.), Approaches to Pronunciation Teaching. Review of English Language Teaching, 2(2). Macmillan, London, pp. 1-17.
Burgess, J., & Spencer, S. (2000). Phonology and pronunciation in integrated language teaching and teacher education. System, 28(2), 191-215.
Çakır, İ., & Baytar, B. (2014). Foreign language learners’ views on the importance of learning the target language pronunciation. Journal of Language and Linguistic Studies, 10(1), 99-110.
Carrol, J. M., & Snowling, M. J. (2004). Language and phonological skills in children at high risk of reading difficulties. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 45, 631-640.
Celce-Murcia, M., & Goodwin, J. (1991). Teaching pronunciation. In M. Celce-Murcia (Ed.), Teaching English as a second or foreign language (2nd ed., pp. 136-153). New York, NY: Newbury House.
Celce-Murcia, M., Brinton, D.M., Goodwin, J.M. (1996). Teaching Pronunciation: A Reference for Teachers of English to Speakers of Other Languages. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
Celce-Murcia, M., Brinton, D. M., & Goodwin, J. M. (2010). Teaching pronunciation hardback with audio CDs (2): A course book and reference guide. Cambridge: Cambridge University.
Clennell, C. (1997). Raising the pedagogic status of discourse intonation teaching. ELT Journal, 51(2), 117-125.
Collins, B., & Mees, I. M. (2013). Practical phonetics and phonology: a resource book for students. New York: Routledge.
Council of Europe. (2001). Common European framework of reference for languages: Learning, teaching, assessment. Cambridge, U.K: Press Syndicate of the University of Cambridge.
Couper, G. (2011). What makes pronunciation teaching work? Testing for the effect of two variables: socially constructed metalanguage and critical listening. Language Awareness, 20, 159-182.
Crystal, D. (1995). The Cambridge encyclopedia of the English language. Cambridge: Cambridge University.
Cutler, A., & Butterfield, S. (1992). Rhythmic cues to speech segmentation: Evidence from juncture misperception. Journal of Memory and Language, 31(2), 218-236.
Dalton, C., Seidlhofer, B., (1994). Pronunciation. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
Darcy, I. (2018). Powerful and Effective Pronunciation Instruction: How Can We Achieve It? CATESOL Journal, 30(1), 13-45.
Dauer, R. M. (2005). The lingua franca core: A new model for pronunciation instruction? TESOL Quarterly, 39(3), 543-550.
Demirezen, M. (2005). Rehabilitating a fossilized pronunciation error: the/v/and/w/contrast by using the audio-articulation method in teacher training in Turkey. Journal of Language and Linguistic Studies, 1(2). 183- 191.
Demirezen, M. (2006). Flapping in North American pronunciation: Case 1 ‘The change of /t/ and /d/ into [D] in pronunciation’. Journal of Language and Linguistic Studies, 2(1). 88-100.
Demirezen, M. (2007). A model to rehabilitate a fossilized pronunciation error of Turkish English language teachers: The English consonant phoneme /ŋ/ wrongly articulated as /ŋk/ through nasal devoicing. Journal of Language and Linguistic Studies, 3(2). 290-303.
Demirezen, M. (2008). The recognition and the production of question forms of English intonation by Turkish first year students. Worldwide Forum on Education and Culture-Putting Theory into Practice: Teaching for the Next Century .4-5 December, Rome, Italy.
Demirezen, M. (2010). The causes of the schwa phoneme as a fossilized pronunciation problem for Turks. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 2(2), 1567-1571.
Demirezen, M., & Kulaksız, E. (2015). Correct pronunciation as work ethics in teacher education. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 199, 713-721.
Derwing, T. M., & Munro, M. J. (1997). Accent, intelligibility, and comprehensibility. Studies in second language acquisition, 19(01), 1-16.
Derwing, T. M., & Rossiter, M. J. (2002). ESL learners' perceptions of their pronunciation needs and strategies. System, 30(2), 155-166.
Derwing, T. M., & Rossiter, M. J. (2003). The effects of pronunciation instruction on the accuracy, fluency, and complexity of L2 accented speech. Applied Language Learning, 13(1), 1-17.
Derwing, T. M., Munro, M. J., & Thomson, R. I. (2007). A longitudinal study of ESL learners' fluency and comprehensibility development. Applied Linguistics, 29(3), 359-380.
Derwing, T. M., Munro, M. J., & Wiebe, G. (1998). Evidence in favor of a broad framework for pronunciation instruction. Language learning, 48(3), 393-410.
Derwing, T. M., Rossiter, M. J., Munro, M. J., & Thomson, R. I. (2004). Second language fluency: Judgments on different tasks. Language learning, 54(4), 655-679.
Derwing, T. M., Thomson, R. I., & Munro, M. J. (2006). English pronunciation and fluency development in Mandarin and Slavic speakers. System, 34(2), 183-193.
Doughty, C., Williams, J. (1998). Focus on Form in Classroom Second Language Acquisition. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Ducca, J. A. D. (2016). Report of learning experiences in didactical conditions for teaching grammar, vocabulary, and pronunciation to Katty, a student with dyslexia. Actualidades Investigativas en Educación, 16(2), 13.
Elliott, A. R. (1997). On the teaching and acquisition of pronunciation within a communicative approach. Hispania,8(1), 95-108.
Elliott, J. (1991). A model of professionalism and its implications for teacher education. British Educational Research Journal, 17(4), 309-318.
Foote, J. A., Holtby, A. K., & Derwing, T. M. (2012). Survey of the teaching of pronunciation in adult ESL programs in Canada, 2010. TESL Canada journal, 29(1), 1-22.
Fraser, H., & Perth, H. F. (1999). ESL pronunciation teaching: Could it be more effective. Australian Language Matters, 7(4), 7-8.
Gilakjani, A. P., & Sabouri, N. B. (2016). Why Is English Pronunciation Ignored by EFL Teachers in Their Classes? International Journal of English Linguistics, 6(6), 195.
Gillon, G. T. (2005). Facilitating phoneme awareness development in 3-and 4-year-old children with speech impairment. Language, Speech, and Hearing Services in Schools, 36(4), 308-324.
Goswami, U., & Bryant, P. E. (1990). Phonological Skills and Learning to Read. Hove, East Sussex: Psychology Press.
Götz, S. (2013). Fluency in native and nonnative English speech (Vol. 53). Philadelphia, PA: John Benjamins.
Hahn, L. D. (2004). Primary stress and intelligibility: Research to motivate the teaching of suprasegmentals. TESOL Quarterly, 38(2), 201-223
Halliday, M. A. K. (1967). Intonation and grammar in British English. The Hague: Mouton.
Halliday, M. A. K. (1970). A course in spoken English: Intonation. London: Oxford.
Halliday, M. A. K. (1994). Functional grammar. London: Edward Arnold.
Harmer, J. (2001). The practice of English language teaching (3rd ed.). Harlow, England: Pearson.
Henderson, A. (2015). Review of Pronunciation in EFL instruction: A Research-Based Approach, by Jolanta Szpyra-Kozłowska, Multilingual Matters. Retrieved from http://hal.univ-smb.fr/hal01644690/document.
Hişmanoğlu, M. (2007). The [ɔ:] and [oʊ] contrast as a fossilized pronunciation error of Turkish learners of English and solutions to the problem. Journal of Language and Linguistic Studies, 3(1). 99-115.
Hişmanoğlu, M. (2012). Teaching word stress to Turkish EFL (English as a Foreign Language) learners through internet-based video lessons. US-China Education Review, A1, 26-40.
Hişmanoğlu, M., & Hişmanoğlu, S. (2010). English language teachers ‘perceptions of educational supervision in relation to their professional development: A case study of Northern Cyprus. Novitas-ROYAL (Research on Youth and Language), 4(1), 16-34.
Homutava, A. (2016). Phonological Competence: A System of Exercises. 10th International Technology, Education and Development Conference, Valencia, Spain, 7-9 March (pp. 1676- 1683).
Hymes, D. (1972). “On communicative competence”. In: J.B. Pride and J. Holmes (Eds.) Sociolinguistics. Selected Readings. Harmondsworth: Penguin, (pp. 269-293).
Jenkins, J. (2000). The phonology of English as an international language. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Jenkins, J. (2002). A sociolinguistically based, empirically researched pronunciation syllabus for English as an international language. Applied linguistics, 23(1), 83-103.
Jenkins, J. (1998). Which pronunciation norms and models for English as an International Language? ELT Journal, 52(2), 119-126.
Jones, R. H. (1997). Beyond “listen and repeat”: Pronunciation teaching materials and theories of second language acquisition. System, 25(1), 103-112.
Jones, R. H., & Evans, S. (1995). Teaching pronunciation through voice quality. ELT Journal, 49(3), 244-251.
Kormos, J., & Dénes, M. (2004). Exploring measures and perceptions of fluency in the speech of second language learners. System, 32(2), 145-164.
Levis, J. M. (1999). Intonation in theory and practice, revisited. TESOL Quarterly, 33(1), 37-63.
Levis, J. M. (2005). Changing contexts and shifting paradigms in pronunciation teaching. TESOL Quarterly, 39(3), 369-377.
Levis, J. M., & Grant, L. (2003). Integrating pronunciation into ESL/EFL classrooms. TESOL Journal, 12(2), 13-19.
Loebach, J. L., & Pisoni, D. B. (2008). Perceptual learning of spectrally degraded speech and environmental sounds. The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 123(2), 1126-1139.
Maastricht, L., Krahmer, E., & Swerts, M. (2016). Prominence patterns in a second language: Intonational transfer from Dutch to Spanish and vice versa. Language Learning, 66(1), 124-158.
MacDonald, S. (2002). Pronunciation-views and practices of reluctant teachers. Prospect, 17(3), 3-18.
McGregor, A., & Reed, M. (2018). Integrating Pronunciation into the English Language Curriculum: A Framework for Teachers. CATESOL Journal, 30(1), 69-94.
Mody, M. (2003). Phonological basis in reading disability: A review and analysis of the evidence. Reading and Writing: An interdisciplinary Journal, 16, 21-39.
Morley, J. (1991). The pronunciation component in teaching English to speakers of other languages. TESOL Quarterly, 25(3), 481-520.
Munro, M. J., & Derwing, T. M. (2011). The foundations of accent and intelligibility in pronunciation research. Language Teaching, 44(3), 316-327.
Munro, M. J., Derwing, T. M., & Thomson, R. I. (2015). Setting segmental priorities for English learners: Evidence from a longitudinal study. International Review of Applied Linguistics in Language Teaching, 53(1), 39-60.
Murphy, J. (2013). Teaching pronunciation. Alexandria, VA.: TESOL.
Murphy, J.M., (1997). Phonology courses offered by MATESOL programs in the U.S. TESOL Quarterly, 31(4), 741-764.
Navas-Brenes, C. A. (2006). The language laboratory and the EFL course. Revista Electrónica Actualidades Investigativas en Educación, 6(2), 1-25.
Nicolosi, L., Harryman, E., Kresheck, J. (2004). Juncture. Terminology of Communication Disorders: Speech-Language-Hearing (5th ed.). Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
Paterno, A. (2003). Handbook for oral readers of English as a second language. Philippine: Rex Book Store.
Pennington, M. C., & Richards, J. C. (1986). Pronunciation revisited. TESOL Quarterly, 20(2), 207- 225.
Pickering, L. (2002). Patterns of intonation in cross-cultural communication exchange structure in NSTA ITA classroom discourse. Proceeding of the Seventh Annual Conference on Language Interaction and Culture, University of California, Santa Barbara, 4, 1-17.
Pike, K.L. (1945). “The intonation of American English”. In Bolinger, D. (ed.): Intonation. Harmondsworth: Penguin: 53-83.
Pisoni, D. B., Lively, S. E., & Logan, J. S. (1994). Perceptual learning of nonnative speech contrasts: Implications for theories of speech perception. In J. C. Goodman & H. C. Nusbaum (Eds.), The development of speech perception: The transition from speech sounds to spoken words (pp. 121- 166). Cambridge, MA, US: The MIT Press.
Reed, M., & Levis, J. (2015). The handbook of English pronunciation. Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell.
Roach, P. (1991) English phonetics and phonology. A practical course. (2nd ed.) Cambridge: Cambridge. Roach, P. (2001). Phonetics. Oxford: Oxford.
Ross, L. 1992. Teaching Phonology to teachers: the phonology element in initial training courses. In: Brown, A. (Ed.), Approaches to Pronunciation Teaching. Review of English Language Teaching, 2(2), 18-28.
Rossiter, M. J. (2009). Perceptions of L2 fluency by native and non-native speakers of English. Canadian Modern Language Review, 65(3), 395-412.
Saito, K. (2011). Examining the role of explicit phonetic instruction in native-like and comprehensible pronunciation development: An instructed SLA approach to L2 phonology. Language awareness, 20(1), 45-59.
Scarcella, R. C., & Oxford, R. L. (1994). Second language pronunciation: State of the art in instruction. System, 22(2), 221-230.
Seufert, P., Sherman, R., Amador, N., Condelli, L., Silver- Pacuilla, H., Tetteyfio, S., Faller, B., Knight, L., & Ward, K. (2005). A process guide for establishing state adult education content standards. Washington, DC: American Institutes for Research.
Snider, V. E. (1997). The relationship between phonemic awareness and later reading achievement. The Journal of Educational Research, 90(4), 203-211.
Spaai, W., & D. Hermes (1992). A Visual Display for the Teaching of Intonation. CALICO Journal, 10(3), 19-30.
Szpyra-Kozłowska, J. (2014). Pronunciation in EFL Instruction: A Research-Based Approach. Bristol, UK: Multilingual Matters.
TESOL (2008). Standards for ESL/EFL Teachers of Adults. Alexandria, VA: TESOL Press. Thompson, S. (1995). Teaching intonation on questions. ELT Journal, 49(3), 235- 243.
Topal, İ. H. (2017). An Analysis of the Intonation Patterns of If-Clauses in Turkish English Majors (Master's thesis), Hacettepe University, Institute of Educational Sciences, Ankara.
Underhill, A. (2005). Sound Foundations: Learning and Teaching Intonation, (2nd Ed.). Oxford: Macmillan.
Underhill, A., (1994). Sound Foundations. Heinemann, London.
Vallabha, G. K., & McClelland, J. L. (2007). Success and failure of new speech category learning in adulthood: Consequences of learned Hebbian attractors in topographic maps. Cognitive, Affective, & Behavioral Neuroscience, 7(1), 53-73.
Valls-Ferrer, M. (2011). The development of oral fluency and rhythm during a study abroad period. Doctoral dissertation. Universitat Pompeu Fabra. Retrieved from http://www.tdx.cat/handle/10803/52064.
Venkatagiri, H. S., & Levis, J. M. (2007). Phonological awareness and speech comprehensibility: An exploratory study. Language awareness, 16(4), 263-277.
Webster, P. E., & Plante, A. S. (1992). Effects of phonological impairment on word, syllable, and phoneme segmentation and reading. Language, Speech, and Hearing Services in Schools, 23(2), 176-182.
Wei, M. (2006). A literature review on strategies for teaching pronunciation. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 491566).
Wells, J. C. (2006). English intonation PB and Audio CD: An introduction. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Wrembel, M. (2005). Metacompetence-oriented model of phonological acquisition: implications for the teaching and learning of second language pronunciation. In Proceedings of the phonetics teaching and learning conference PTLC2005(pp. 1-4).
Wrembel, M. (2011). Metaphonetic awareness in the production of speech. In M. Pawlak, E. WaniekKlimczak & J. Majer (Eds.), Speaking and instructed foreign language acquisition (pp. 169-182). Clevedon: Multilingual Matters.
Yopp, H.K., & Yopp, R.H. (2009). Phonological awareness is child’s play! Young Children, 64(1), 12- 21.
Zsiga, E.C. (2013). The sounds of English: An introduction to phonetics and phonology. Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell.