Resolution of Consumptive Hypothyroidism Secondary to Infantile Hepatic Hemangiomatosis with a Combination of Propranolol and Levothyroxine

Infantile hepatic hemangiomas (IHH), particularly of the diffuse subtype can, in severe cases, be associated with hepatic and cardiac failure, compartment syndrome and consumptive hypothyroidism. Early recognition and treatment of these pathologies is paramount in order to minimise the risk of long-term sequelae. We report an interesting case of a female infant who presented with systemic compromise, in the absence of large or obvious cutaneous infantile hemangiomas. Imaging identified innumerable hepatic hemangiomas, consistent with diffuse infantile hepatic hemangiomatosis. Subsequent to this, thyroid function tests confirmed an associated but comparatively rare form of hypothyroidism, known as consumptive hypothyroidism. Following joint consultation with dermatology and endocrinology she was promptly treated with oral propranolol and levothyroxine, with subsequent improvement in her clinical parameters. This case reiterates the importance of aggressive investigation and management of consumptive hypothyroidism in any infant diagnosed with IHH, particularly when there is systemic compromise. We advocate propranolol as a single first line treatment for IHH, supported by thyroid replacement when appropriate.

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