Investigation of the effect of Cr2O3-2 % TiO2 coating on braking performance

Öz The brake discs of the new generation vehicles operate with very high speed and tough braking conditions. Therefore, high performance in braking is essential in terms of human and vehicle safety. In vehicles, the braking performance criterion is to control the speed of the vehicle safely without causing a mechanical failure. During a braking process in a moving vehicle, an excessive abrasion occurs. The aim of this study was to investigate the performance of the brake disc coated with Cr2O3-2%TiO2 (Metco106F) composite powder by using the plasma coating method to increase the abrasion resistance of automobile brake disc. The braking test was performed according to the SAEJ2430 braking test standard. The microstructure, hardness, wear and braking performance characteristics of the coating were investigated. Our results showed that the coated disc exhibited better wear resistance than the uncoated disc under the different wear mechanisms at high temperatures. The obtained coefficient of friction revealed that the coated disc showed better braking performance.


1. Lee, Y.M; Park, J.S; Seok, C.S; Lee C.W; Kim, J.H, "Thermal stress analysis for a brake disc considering pressure distribution at a frictional surface", Proceedings of the Korean Society of Precision Engineering Conference, 842-846, 2005.

2. Hong, H; Kim, M; Lee, H; Jeong, N, "The thermo-mechanical behavior of brake discs for high-speed railway vehicles", Journal of Mechanical Science and Technology, 33(4), 1711-1721), 2019.

3. Laguna-Camacho J; Juárez-Morales, G; Calderon-Ramon C.M; Velázquez-Martínez, V; Hernández-Romero, I; Méndez-Méndez, J.V; Vite-Torres, M.A, "Study of the wear mechanisms of disk and shoe brake pads", Engineering Failure Analysis, 56, 348-359, 2015.

4. Öktem, H; Uygur İ, "Advanced friction-wear behavior of organic brake pads using a newly developed system", Tribology Transactions, 62(1), 51–61, 2019.

5. Goo, B.C," A study on the effect of parameters on the temperature distribution of brake discs", Proceedings of the Korean Society for Railway Spring Conference, 1-6, 2007.

6. Kim, J.H; Goo, B.C; Suk C.S, "A study on the temperature change of braking disc and thermal conductivity during the service", Journal of the Korea Society for Railway, 10(6), 665-669, 2007.

7. Blau, P.J. and Mc-Laughlin, J.C, "Effects of water films and sliding speed on the frictional behavior of truck disc brake material", Tribology in Industries, 36 (10), 709-715, 2003.

8. Anderson, A. E, "Friction and wear automotive brakes, ASM Handbook, Friction, Lubrication, and Wear Technology", ASM International, 2017.

9. Wu, Y; Ma, Y; Gao, W; Yang, G; Fu, H; Xi, N; Chen, H, "High temperature wear performance of laser cladding Co06 coating on high-speed train brake disc", Applied Surface Science, 481, 761-766, 2019.

10. Güney B, Mutlu İ, "Tribological properties of brake discs coated Cr2O3-40%TiO2 by plasma spraying", Surface Review and Letters, 26, 10,1950075, 2019.

11. Yin, Z; Tao, S; Zhou, X; Ding, C, "Particle in-flight behavior and its influence on the microstructure and mechanical properties of plasma-sprayed Al2O3 coatings", Journal of the European Ceramic Society, 28, 1143-1148, 2008.

12. Ctibor, P; Píš, I; Kotlan, J; Pala, Z; Khalakhan, I; Stengl, V; Homola, P, "Microstructure and properties of plasma-sprayed mixture of Cr2O3 and TiO2", Journal of Thermal Spray Technology, 22, 1163-1169, 2013.

13. Sert, Y; Toplan, N, "Tribological behavior of a plasma-sprayed Al2O3-TiO2-Cr2O3 coating", Materials and Technology, 47, 181-183, 2013.

14. Candel, A., Gadow, R, "Optimized multiaxis robot kinematic for HVOF spray coatings on complex shaped substrates", Surface Coating Technology, 201, 2065-2071, 2006.

15. Chen, K; Song, P; Li, C; Zhou, Y; He, X; Yu, X; Lu, J, "Influence of heat treatment on alternant-layer structure and mechanical properties of Al2O3-TiO2-MgO coatings", Ceramics International, 44, 13727-13735, 2018.

16. Wang, Q; Luo, S; Shaoyi Wang, S; Wang, H; Chidambaram Seshadri Ramachandran, "Wear, erosion and corrosion resistance of HVOF-sprayed WC and Cr3C2 based coatings for electrolytic hard chrome replacemen"t, International Journal of Refractory Metals-Hard Materials, 81, 242-252, 2019.

17. Sathish, S; Swaminathan, C.S; Senthilvel, C; Dilip Jerold, B; Shabir, M.F; Geetha, M, "Investigation on the corrosion behavior of the bilayered ceramic coatings deposited using atmospheric plasma spraying", Procedia Technology, 12, 301-307, 2014.

18. Hegde Chitharanjan, A; Venkatakrishna, K; Eliaz, N, "Electrodeposition of Zn-Ni, Zn-Fe and Zn-Ni-Fe alloys", Surface and Coatings Technology, 205, 2031-2041, 2010.

19. Sreenivasa Rao, K.V; Ramesh, C.S; Girisha, K.G; Rakesh, Y.D, "Slurry erosive wear behavior of plasma sprayed Cr2O3 coatings on steel substrates", Materials Today: Proceedings, 4, 10283-10287, 2017.

20. Zamani, P; Valefi, Z, "Microstructure, phase composition and mechanical properties of plasma sprayed Al2O3, Cr2O3 and Cr2O3-Al2O3 composite coatings", Surface and Coatings Technology, 316, 138-145, 2017.

21. Chen, L.Y; Xu, T; Wang, H; Sang, P; Lu, S; Ze-Xin Wang, Z.X; Chen, S; Zhangb, L.C, "Phase interaction induced texture in a plasma sprayed-remelted NiCrBSi coating during solidification: an electron backscatter diffraction study", Surface and Coatings Technology, 358, 467-480, 2019.

22. Singh, V.P; Sil, A.R; Jayaganthan R. "Tribological behavior of plasma sprayed Cr2O3-3%TiO2 coatings", Wear, 272, 149-158, 2011.

23. Babu, P.S; Sen, D; Jyothirmayi, A.; Krishna, L.R; Rao, D.S, "Influence of microstructure on the wear and corrosion behavior of detonation sprayed Cr2O3-Al2O3 and plasma sprayed Cr2O3 coatings", Ceramics International, 44, 2351-2357, 2018.

24. Bagde, P; Sapate, S.G; Khatirkar, R.K; Vashishtha, N; Tailor, S, "Friction and wear behaviour of plasma sprayed Cr2O3-TiO2 coating", Materials Research Express, 5, 1-14, 2018.

25. Anonymous, SAE J661, Brake Lining Quality Test Procedure, Society of Automotive Engineers, Pensilvanya, USA: Standart No. SAE J661:1997.

26., 15/07/ 2019.

27. Hirota, K; Takano, Y; Yoshinaka, M; Yamaguchi, O, "Fabrication and mechanical properties of almost fully-densified Cr2O3 ceramics", Journal of Materials Science Letters, 21 (11), 853-854, 2002.

28. Du, H.L; Datta, P.K; Burnell-Gray, J.S; Guo, X, "Influence of plasma-sprayed Mo coating on sulphidation behaviour of inconel 600 and nimonic PE11 alloys", Surface and Coatings Technology, (76-77), 1-6, 1995.

29. Hieman, R.B, "Plasma spray coating-principles and applications", VCH publishers Inc., 1996.

30. Çelik, E; Şengil, İ.A; Avcı, E, "Effect of some parameters on corrosion behaviour of plasma-sprayed coatings", Surface and Coatings Technology, 97, 355-360, 1997.

31. Anonymous, SAE J2430, "Dynamometer effectiveness characterization test forpassenger car andlight truck brake friction products. surface vehicle standard", Society of Automotive Engineers, 1999.

32. Anonymous, "How to read and understand the aftermarket standard sae j2430 / brake effectiveness evaluation Procedure-Test report", Link Testing, 1999.

33. Carlos, E.A; Ferro, E, "Technical overview of brake performance testing for original equipment and aftermarket industries in the US and europe a markets", Link Testing, 2005.

34. Miguel, J.M; Guilemany, J.M; Vizcaino, S, "Tribological study of NiCrBSi coating obtained by different processes", Tribology International, 36 (3), 181-1 87, 2003.

35. Vaclav, R; Helena, R; Dagmer, J; Peter, F; "Wear and environmental aspects of composite materials for automotive braking industry", Wear, 265, 167-175, 2005.

36. Guo, C; Zhou, J; Zhao, J; Chen, J, "Effect of ZrB2 on the microstructure and wear resistance of Ni-based composite coating produced on pure Ti by laser cladding", Tribology Transactions, 54, 80-86, 2001.

37. Peng, L, "Preparation and tribological properties of NiCrBSiC reinforced laser alloying layer", Tribology Transactions, 56, 697-702, 20013.

38. Filip, P; Weiss, Z; Rafaja, D, "On friction layer formation in polymer matrix composite materials for brake applications", Wear, 252, 189-198, 2002.

39. Ertan, R; Yavuz, N, "Balata malzemelerinde kullanılan yapısalların balataların tribolojik ve fiziksel özelliklerine etkisi", Uludağ Üniversitesi, Mühendislik-Mimarlık Dergisi, 15, 169-177, 2010.

40. Shorowordi, K.M; Haseeb, A.S.M.A; Celis, J.P, "Velocity effects on the wear, friction and tribochemistry of aluminium MMC sliding against phenolic brake pad", Wear, 256, 1176-1181, 2004.

41. Bolelli, G; Cannillo, V; Lusvarghi, L; Manfredini, T, "Wear behaviour of thermally sprayed ceramic oxide coatings", Wear, 261, 1298-1315, 2006.

42. Buytoz, S; Ersöz, E; Islak, S; Orhan, N; Kurt. B; Somunkıran. İ, "Plazma püskürtme yöntemiyle oluşturulan Al2O3-TiO2 kompozit kaplamaların mikro yapı karakteristikleri", International İron-Steel Symposium, 2012, Karabük, Türkiye.

43. Lee, C.H; Kim, H.K; Choi, H.S; Ahn, H.S, "Phase transformation and bond coat oxidation behavior of plasma-sprayed zirconia thermal barrier coating", Surface and Coatings Technology, 124, 1-12 2000.

44. Li, C.J; Yang, G.J; Ohmori, A, "Relationship between particle erosion and lamellar microstructure for plasma-sprayed alumina coatings", Wear, 260, 1166-1172, 2006.

45. Pawlowski, L, "The science and engineering of thermal spray coatings", John Wiley-Sons, 2008.

46. Kuroda, T; Kobayashi, A, "Adhesion characteristics of zirconia-alumina composite coatings by gastunnel type plasma spraying", Vacuum, 73, 635-641, 2004.

47. Çelik, E; Tekmen, C; Özdemir I; Çetinel, H; Karakaş, Y; Okumuş, S.C, "Effects on performance of Cr2O3 layers produced on Mo/cast-iron materials", Surface and Coatings Technology, (174-175), 1074-1081, 2003.

48. Luo, H; Goberman, D; Shaw, L; Gell, M, "Indentation fracture behavior of plasma sprayed nano structured Al2O3-%13TiO2 coatings", Materials Science and Engineering A, 346 (1-2), 237-245, 2003.

49. Fervel, B; Normand, C; Coddet, C, "Tribological behavior of plasma sprayed Al2O3-based cermet coatings", Wear, 230(1), 70-77, 1999.

50. Çelik, E; Sarıkaya, Ö, "The effect on residual stresses of porosity in plasma sprayed MgO-ZrO2 coatings for an internal combustion diesel engine", Materials Science and Engineering A, 379, 11-16. 2004.

51. Song, E.P; Ahn, J; Lee, S; Kim, N.J, "Effects of critical plasma spray parameter and spray distance on wear resistance of Al2O3-%8TiO2 coatings plasma sprayed with nano powders", Surface and Coating Technology, 20, 3625-3632, 2008.

52. Eriksson, M; Bergman, F; Jacobson, S, "On the nature of tribological contact in automotive brakes", Wear, 252, 26-36, 2002.

53. Ripley, M.I; Kirstein, O, "Residual stresses in a cast iron automotive brake disc rotor", Physica, 385-386 (B), 604-606, 2006.

54. Mutlu, İ; Öner,C; Findik, F, "Boric acid effect in phenolic composites on tribological properties in brake linings", Materials and Design, 28, 480-487, 2007.

55. Zou, Z. W., Wang, Y; Zhou F.F; Wang, L; Liu, S.Y; Wang, Y. "Tribological property of plasma-sprayed Al2O3-13wt% TiO2 coatings onto resin-based composites", Applied Surface Science, 431, 75-80, 2018.

56. Tyagi, R; Xiong, D.S; Li, J; Dai, J. "Elevated temperature tribological behavior of Ni-based composites containing nano-silver and hBN", Wear, 269, 884-890, 2010.

57. Fernandez, J.E; Wan, Y; Tuchoa, R; Rinconb, A. "Friction and wear behaviour of plasma-sprayed Cr2O3 coatings in dry sliding against AISI D2 steel", Elsevier, 1996.

58. Ahn, H.S; Kwon, O.K. "Tribological behavior of plasma-sprayed chromium oxide coating", Wear, 225-229, 814–824, 1999.

59. Wahab, J.A, Ghazali, M.J, Sajuria, Z, Otsukac, Y, Jayaprakashd, M, Nakamurae, S, Baharin, A.F.S. "Effects of micro-grooves on tribological behavior of plasma-sprayed alumina-13% titania coatings", Ceramics International, 43, 6410-6416, 2017.

60. Hawthorne, H.M, Erickson, L.C, Ross, D, Tai, H, Troczynski, T. "The microstructural dependence of wear and indentation behavior of some plasma-sprayed alumina coatings", Wear, 203-204, 709-714, 1997.

61. Güney B, Mutlu İ, "Wear and corrosion resistance of Cr2O3%-40% TiO2 coating on gray cast-iron by plasma spray technique", Materials Research Express, 6, 096577, 2019.

62. Erdemir, A. "A review of the lubrication of ceramics with thin solid, Friction and Wear of Ceramics", Marcel Dekker, 1994.

63. Suzdal'tsev, E.I. "Fabrication of high-density quartz ceramics: research and practical aspects. Part 4. Properties of mixed quartz glass slips and preforms prepared by casting into porous molds", Refractories and Industrical Ceramics, 46 (6), 391-395, 2005.

64. Kukutschová, J; Roubíček, V; Malachová, K; Pavlíčková, Z; Holuša, R; Kubačková, J; Mička, V; MacCrimmon, D; Filip, P. "Wear mechanism in automotive brake materials, wear debris and its potential environmental impact", Wear, 267, (5-8), 807-817, 2009.

Kaynak Göster

Bibtex @araştırma makalesi { ijaet592144, journal = {International Journal of Automotive Engineering and Technologies}, issn = {}, eissn = {2146-9067}, address = {}, publisher = {Murat CİNİVİZ}, year = {2020}, volume = {9}, pages = {29 - 41}, doi = {10.18245/ijaet.592144}, title = {Investigation of the effect of Cr2O3-2 \% TiO2 coating on braking performance}, key = {cite}, author = {Mutlu, İbrahim and Güney, Bekir and Erkurt, İbrahim} }
APA Mutlu, İ , Güney, B , Erkurt, İ . (2020). Investigation of the effect of Cr2O3-2 % TiO2 coating on braking performance . International Journal of Automotive Engineering and Technologies , 9 (1) , 29-41 . DOI: 10.18245/ijaet.592144
MLA Mutlu, İ , Güney, B , Erkurt, İ . "Investigation of the effect of Cr2O3-2 % TiO2 coating on braking performance" . International Journal of Automotive Engineering and Technologies 9 (2020 ): 29-41 <
Chicago Mutlu, İ , Güney, B , Erkurt, İ . "Investigation of the effect of Cr2O3-2 % TiO2 coating on braking performance". International Journal of Automotive Engineering and Technologies 9 (2020 ): 29-41
RIS TY - JOUR T1 - Investigation of the effect of Cr2O3-2 % TiO2 coating on braking performance AU - İbrahim Mutlu , Bekir Güney , İbrahim Erkurt Y1 - 2020 PY - 2020 N1 - doi: 10.18245/ijaet.592144 DO - 10.18245/ijaet.592144 T2 - International Journal of Automotive Engineering and Technologies JF - Journal JO - JOR SP - 29 EP - 41 VL - 9 IS - 1 SN - -2146-9067 M3 - doi: 10.18245/ijaet.592144 UR - Y2 - 2019 ER -
EndNote %0 International Journal of Automotive Engineering and Technologies Investigation of the effect of Cr2O3-2 % TiO2 coating on braking performance %A İbrahim Mutlu , Bekir Güney , İbrahim Erkurt %T Investigation of the effect of Cr2O3-2 % TiO2 coating on braking performance %D 2020 %J International Journal of Automotive Engineering and Technologies %P -2146-9067 %V 9 %N 1 %R doi: 10.18245/ijaet.592144 %U 10.18245/ijaet.592144
ISNAD Mutlu, İbrahim , Güney, Bekir , Erkurt, İbrahim . "Investigation of the effect of Cr2O3-2 % TiO2 coating on braking performance". International Journal of Automotive Engineering and Technologies 9 / 1 (Şubat 2020): 29-41 .
AMA Mutlu İ , Güney B , Erkurt İ . Investigation of the effect of Cr2O3-2 % TiO2 coating on braking performance. International Journal of Automotive Engineering and Technologies. 2020; 9(1): 29-41.
Vancouver Mutlu İ , Güney B , Erkurt İ . Investigation of the effect of Cr2O3-2 % TiO2 coating on braking performance. International Journal of Automotive Engineering and Technologies. 2020; 9(1): 29-41.
IEEE İ. Mutlu , B. Güney ve İ. Erkurt , "Investigation of the effect of Cr2O3-2 % TiO2 coating on braking performance", International Journal of Automotive Engineering and Technologies, c. 9, sayı. 1, ss. 29-41, Şub. 2020, doi:10.18245/ijaet.592144