Retinal Arter Tıkanıklığında Epidemiyoloji, Prevalans ve İnsidans

Retinal arter tıkanıklığı ciddi kalıcı görme kaybına sebep olan ve takip eden dönemde artmış vasküler infarktlar nedeniyle yüksek oranda morbidite ve mortaliteye yol açan bir hastalıktır. Günümüzde hala yüz güldürücü düzeyde görme restorasyonu sağlayacak mutlak bir tedavi konsepti geliştirilememiş olsa da, bu hastalığa yol açan risk faktörleri ve takip eden komplikasyonlar detaylıca tanımlanmıştır. Bu nedenle retinal arter tıkanıklığına yatkınlık yaratan durumların tespit edilip, uygun önlemlerin alınması, retinal iskemi geçiren bireylerin yaşam süresi ve kalitesi açısından yüksek öneme sahiptir

Th Epidemiology, Prevalence and Incidence of Retinal Artery Occlusion

Retinal artery occlusion is a disease which leads to high morbidity and mortality due to severe vision loss and subsequent vascular infarcts. Even though, there is still no definite treatment modality for vision restoration, risk factors and following complications are well described. Threfore, it is crucial to define underlying conditions causing retinal artery occlusion and taking immediate cautions for lifetime expectancy and quality of the patients aftr retinal ischemia.

Kaynakça

1. Von Graefe A. Über Embolie der Arteria centralis retinae als Ursache plö- tzlicher Erblindung. Albrecht v Graefes Arch Ophthalmol. 1859;5:136-85.

2. Schweigger K. Vorlesungen über den Gebrauch des Augenspiegels. Berlin: Mylius’sche Verlags-Buchhandlung; 1864.

3. Hayreh SS, Zimmerman MB. Central retinal artery occlusion: visual outcome. Am J Ophthalmol. 2005;140(3):376-91.

4. Hayreh SS. Acute retinal arterial occlusive disorders. Prog Retin Eye Res. 2011;30(5):359-94.

5. Arruga J, Sanders MD. Ophthalmologic findings in 70 patients with evidence of retinal embolism. Ophthalmology. 1982;89(12):1336-47.

6. Hayreh SS. Th central retinary artery. Hayreh SS (ed) In: Ocular Vascular Occlusive Disorders. eBook, Springer Cham Heidelberg New York Dordrecht London, 2015;31-53, 239-305.

7. Biousse V, Newman N. Retinal and optic nerve ischemia. Continuum (Minneap Minn) 2014;20(4):838-56

8. Cugati S, Varma DD, Chen CS, Lee AW. Treatment options for central retinal artery occlusion. Curr Treat Options Neurol. 2013;15(1):63-77

9. Leavitt JA, Larson TA, Hodge DO, Gullerud RE. Th incidence of central retinal artery occlusion in Olmsted County, Minnesota. Am J Ophthalmol. 2011;152(5):820-3.e2.

10. Park SJ, Choi NK, Seo KH, Park KH, Woo SJ. Nationwide incidence of clinically diagnosed central retinal artery occlusion in Korea, 2008 to 2011. Ophthalmology. 2014; 121(10):1933-8

11. Brown GC. Retinal arterial obstructive disease. In: Ryan SJ,ed. Retina. St Louis: Mosby; 1994:1361.

12. Ivanisevic M, Karelovic D. Th incidence of central retinal artery occlusion in the district of Split, Croatia [letter]. Ophthalmologica. 2001;215(3):245- 6.

13. Wolma J, Nederkoorn PJ, Goossens A, Vergouwen MD, van Schaik IN, Vermeulen M. Ethnicity a risk factor? Th relation between ethnicity and large- and small-vessel disease in White people, Black people, and Asians within a hospital based population. Eur J Neurol. 2009;16(4):522–527.

14. Ahuja RM, Chaturvedi S, Eliott D, Joshi N, Puklin JE, Abrams GW. Mechanisms of retinal arterial occlusive disease in African American and Caucasian patients. Stroke. 1999;30(8):1506 –1509.

15. Dattilo M, Biousse V, Newman NJ. Update on the management of central retinal artery occlusion. Neurol Clin. 2017; 35(1):83-100.

16. Schmidt D, Hetzel A, Geibel-Zehender A, Schulte-Monting J. Systemic diseases in non-inflmmatory branch and central retinal artery occlusionean overview of 416 patients. Eur J Med Res. 2007;12(12):595-603.

17. Hayreh SS, Zimmerman MB. Ocular arterial occlusive disorders and carotid artery disease. Ophthalmology Retina. 2017;1(1):12-18.

18. Rudkin AK, Lee AW, Aldrich E, Miller NR, Chen CS. Clinical characteristics and outcome of current standard management of central retinal artery occlusion. Clin Exp Ophthalmol. 2010;38(5):496-501.

19. Rudkin AK, Lee AW, Chen CS. Vascular risk factors for central retinal artery occlusion. Eye (Lond). 2010;24(4):678-81

20. Callizo J, Feltgen N, Pantenburg S, Wolf A, Neubauer AS, Jurklies B et al. Cardiovascular risk factors in central retinal artery occlusion: results of a prospective and standardized medical examination. Ophthalmology. 2015;122(9):1881-8

21. Hayreh SS, Podhajsky PA, Zimmerman MB. Retinal artery occlusion: associated systemic and ophthalmic abnormalities. Ophthalmology. 2009;116(10):1928-36.

22. Biousse V, Touboul PJ, D’Anglejan-Chatillon J Lévy C, Schaison M, Bousser MG. Ophthalmologic manifestations of internal carotid artery dissection. Am J Ophthalmol. 1998;126(4):565-77.

23. Patel M, Shah G, Davies JB, Mittra RA, Eliott D. Re-evaluating our perspective on retinal artery occlusion from carotid dissection: a report of three cases and review of the literature. Ophthalmic Surg Lasers Imaging Retina. 2013;44(6):555-60.

24. Hayreh SS, Piegors DJ, Heistad DD. Serotonin induced constriction of ocular arteries in atherosclerotic monkeys: implications for ischemic disorders of the retina and optic nerve head. Arch Ophthalmol. 1997;115(2):220-8.

25 Nakata A, Sekiguchi Y, Hirota S, Yamashita Y, Takazakura E. Central retinal artery occlusion following cardiac catheterization. Jpn Heart J. 2002;43(2):187-92.

26. Inoue H, Muneuchi J, Ohno T, Arikawa A, Ishibashi T, Hara T. Central retinal artery occlusion following transcatheter balloon aortic valvuloplasty in an adolescent with aortic valvular stenosis. Pediatr Cardiol. 2008;29(4):830-3

27. Selton J, Maalouf T, Olivier A, Anxionnat R, Angioi M, Angioi K. Central retinal artery occlusion following coronary angiography: a case report. J Fr Ophtalmol. 2011;34(3):181–5.

28. Trethowan BA, Gilliland H, Popov AF, Varadarajan B, Phillips SA, McWhirter L, et al. A case report and brief review of the literature on bilateral retinal infarction following cardiopulmonary bypass for coronary artery bypass graftng. J Cardiothorac Surg. 2011;21(6):154.

29. Lin RJ, Tang SC, Jeng JS. Stroke due to late in-stent thrombosis following carotid stenting. Acta Neurol Taiwan. 2011;20(2):161–2.

30. Samardzic K, Samardzic P, Vujeva B, Prvulovic D, Latic-Hodzic L. Embolism in retinal circulation aftr invasive cardiovascular procedures. Med Arh. 2012;66(1):66–7.

31. Klein R, Klein BE, Moss SE, Meuer SM. Retinal emboli and cardiovascular disease: the Beaver Dam Eye Study. Arch Ophthalmol. 2003;121(10):1446– 51.

32. Brod RD. Transient central retinal artery occlusion and contralateral amaurosis aftr retrobulbar anesthetic injection. Ophthalmic Surg. 1989;20(9):643–6.

33. Hersch M, Baer G, Dieckert JP, Lambert HM, Shore JW. Optic nerve enlargement and central retinalartery occlusion secondary to retrobulbar anesthesia. Ann Ophthalmol. 1989;21(5):195–7.

34. Mansour AM, Bynoe LA, Welch JC, Pesavento R, Mahendradas P, Ziemssen F, et al. Retinal vascular events aftr intravitreal bevacizumab. Acta Ophthalmol. 2010;88(7):730–5.

35. Higashide T, Murotani E, Saito Y, Ohkubo S, Sugiyama K. Adverse events associated with intraocular injections of bevacizumab in eyes with neovascular glaucoma. Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol. 2012;250(4):603–10.

36. Klein ML, Jampol LM, Condon PI, Rice TA, Serjeant GR. Central retinal artery occlusion without retrobulbar hemorrhage aftr retrobulbar anesthesia. Am J Ophthalmol. 1982;93(5):573–7.

37. Park SW, Woo SJ, Park KH, Huh JW, Jung C, Kwon OK. Iatrogenic retinal artery occlusion caused by cosmetic facial filler injections. Am J Ophthalmol. 2012;154(4):653–62.e651.

38. Vd Berg W, Verbraak FD, Bos PJ. Homocystinuria presenting as central retinal artery occlusion and longstanding thromboembolic disease. Br J Ophthalmol. 1990;74(11):696–7.

39. Glueck CJ, Ping W, Hutchins R, Petersen MR, Golnik K. Ocular vascular thrombotic events: central retinal vein and central retinal artery occlusions. Clin Appl Thomb Hemost. 2008;14(3):286–94.

40. Uysal Z, Dogu F, Kurekci AE, Culha VK, Deda G, Ekim M, et al. Recurrent arterial thrombosis in a child: primary antiphospholipid antibody syndrome. Pediatr Hematol Oncol. 2002;19(1):59–66.

41. Ben-Ami R, Zeltser D, Leibowitz I, Berliner SA. Retinal artery occlusion in a patient with factor V Leiden and prothrombin G20210A mutations. Blood Coagul Fibrinolysis. 2002;13(1):57–9.

42. Stambough JL, Cheeks ML. Central retinal artery occlusion: a complication of the knee-chest position. J Spinal Disord. 1992;5(3):363–5.

43. Mertens E, Smets RM, Sys J, Michielsen J, Verstreken J, Tassignon MJ. Central retinal artery occlusion aftr back surgery: a case report. Bull Soc Belge Ophtalmol. 1995;255:127–31.

44. Levy J, Tovbin D, Lifshitz T, Zlotnik M, Tessler Z. Intraocular pressure during haemodialysis: a review. Eye (Lond). 2005;19(12):1249–56.

45. Varma DD, Cugati S, Lee AW, Chen CS. A review of central retinal artery occlusion: clinical presentation and management. Eye (Lond). 2013;27(6):688–97

46. Douglas DJ, Schuler JJ, Buchbinder D, Dillon BC, Flanigan DP. Th association of central retinal artery occlusion and extracranial carotid artery disease. Ann Surg. 1988;208(1):85–90.

47. Hankey GJ, Slattery JM, Warlow CP. Prognosis and prognostic factors of retinal infarction: a prospective cohort study. BMJ. 1991;302(2):499–504.

48. Vu HT, Keeff JE, Mccarty CA, Taylor HR. Impact of unilateral and bilateral vision loss on quality of life. Br J Ophthalmol. 2005;89(3):360–3.

49. Lorentzen SE. Occlusion of the central retinal artery. A follow up. Acta Ophthalmologica. 1969;47(3):690–703.

50. Rim TH, Han J, Choi YS, Hwang SS, Lee CS, Lee SC et al. Retinal artery occlusion and the risk of stroke development: twelve-year nationwide cohort study. Stroke 2016;47(2):376–82.

51. Chang YS, Jan RL, Weng SF, Wang JJ, Chio CC, Wei FT et al. Retinal artery occlusion and the 3-year risk of stroke in Taiwan: a nationwide population-based study. Am J Ophthalmol. 2012;154(4):645–52.e1.

52. Hayreh SS, Zimmerman MB, Kimura A, Sanon A. Central retinal artery occlusion. Retinal survival time. Exp Eye Res. 2004;78(3):723–736.3.

53. Tobalem S, Schutz JS, Chronopoulos A. Central retinal artery occlusion rethinking retinal survival time. BMC Ophthalmol. 2018;18(1):101

Kaynak Göster