Afakik Retina Dekolmanı; Risk Faktörleri, Patogenez, Klinik ve Yönetim

Afaki, regmatojen retina dekolmanı (RD) için majör risk faktörlerinden biridir. Miyopi, erkek cinsiyet, vitreus kaybı, erken yaş gibi predispozan faktörler RD gelişimini kolaylaştırır. Afak RD’ler genellikle semptomatik değildir. Yırtık lokalizasyonu daha çok üst kadranda, ekvator hizasında ya da ora serrata yakınlarına yerleşimli ve boyutları küçük olma eğilimindedir. Tedavide pars plana vitrektomi ve/veya skleral çökertme yöntemlerinin fonksiyonel ve anatomik sonuçları benzerdir.

Aphakic Retinal Detachment; Risk Factors, Pathogenesis, Clinical Characteristics and Management

Aphakia is one of the major risk factors for rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (RD). Predisposing factors such as myopia, male gender, vitreous loss, young age facilitate development of RD. Generally, aphakic RD do not any symptoms. Retinal breaks are located more in the superior retinal quadrant , equatorial or near the ora serrata and are tended to small size. Pars plana vitrectomy and/or scleral buckling have similarly functional and anatomical outcome in treatment.

Kaynakça

1. Ramos M, Kruger EF, Lashkari K. Biostatistical analysis of pseudophakic and aphakic retinal detachments. Semin Ophthalmol. 2002;17(3-4):206- 213.

2. Haimann MH, Burton TC, Brown CK. Epidemiology of retinal detachment. Arch Ophthalmol 1982;100(2):289-292. 3. Laatikainen L, Toippanen EM, Harju H. Epidemiology of rhegmatogenous retinal detachment in a Finnish population. Acta Ophthalmol (Copenh) 1985;63(1):59-64.

4. Algvere PV, Johnberg P, Textorius O. The Swedish Retinal Detachment Register. I: a database for epidemiological and clinical studies. Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol 1999;237(2):137-144.

5. Rowe JA, Erie JC, Baratz KH, Hodge DO, Gray DT, Butterfield L, et al. Retinal detachment in Olmsted County, Minnesota, 1976 through 1995. Ophthalmology. 1999;106(1):154-159

6. Daien V, Le Pape A, Heve D, Carriere I, Villain M. Incidence, Risk Factors, and Impact of Age on Retinal Detachment after Cataract Surgery in France: A National Population Study. Ophthalmology. 2015;122(11):2179- 2185.

7. Yaşar T, Gül A, Seven E, Yiğit MS, Batur M, Çağlar Ç. Katarakt Cerrahisi Geçiren Gözlerde Retina Dekolmanı Sıklığı. MN Oftalmol. 2010;17(4):220-222.

8. Tuft SJ, Gore DM, Bunce C, Sullivan PM, Minassian DC. Outcomes of pseudophakic retinal detachment. Acta Ophthalmol. 2012;90(7):639-644.

9. Olsen G, Olson RJ. Update on a long-term, prospective study of capsulotomy and retinal detachment rates after cataract surgery. J Cataract Refract Surg. 2000;26(7):1017-1021.

10. François J, Verbraeken H. Complications in 1,000 consecutive intracapsular cataract extractions. Ophthalmologica. 1980;180(3):121-128.

11. Taylor DM, Dalburg LA, Consentino RT, Khaliq A. Intraocular lenses: 500 consecutive intracapsular cataract extractions with lens implantation compared with 500 intracapsular extractions--observations and comments. Ophthalmic Surg. 1978;9(1):29-55.

12. Jaffe NS, Clayman HM, Jaffe MS. Retinal detachment in myopic eyes after intracapsular and extracapsular cataract extraction. Am J Ophthalmol. 1984;97(1):48-52.

13. Norregaard JC, Thoning H, Andersen TF, Bernth-Petersen P, Javitt JC, Anderson GF. Risk of retinal detachment following cataract extraction: results from the International Cataract Surgery Outcomes Study. Br J Ophthalmol. 1996;80(8):689-93.

14. Coppé AM, Lapucci G. Posterior vitreous detachment and retinal detachment following cataract extraction. Curr Opin Ophthalmol. 2008;19(3):239-242.

15. Neal RE, Bettelheim FA, Lin C, Winn KC, Garland DL, Zigler JS Jr. Alterations in human vitreous humour following cataract extraction. Exp Eye Res. 2005;80(3):337-347.

16. Herrmann W, Helbig H, Heimann H. Pseudophakic retinal detachment. Klin Monbl Augenheilk. 2011;228(3):195-200.

17. Osterlin S. Macromolecular composition of the vitreous in the aphakic owl monkey eye. Exp Eye Res. 1978;26(1):77-84.

18. Mirshahi A, Höhn F, Lorenz K, Hattenbach LO. Incidence of posterior vitreous detachment after cataract surgery. J Cataract Refract Surg. 2009;35(6):987-991.

19. Ripandelli G, Coppé AM, Parisi V, Olzi D, Scassa C, Chiaravalloti A, et al. Posterior vitreous detachment and retinal detachment after cataract surgery. Ophthalmology. 2007; 114(4): 692-7.

20. Hilford D, Hilford M, Mathew A, Polkinghorne PJ. Posterior vitreous detachment following cataract surgery. Eye (Lond). 2009; 23(6): 1388-92.

21. Hasanreisoğlu B, Aksünger A, Or M, Önol M, Öz Ö, Akbatur HH, et al. 1015 yırtıklı retina dekolmanı olgusunda klasik dekolman cerrahisi sonuçları. Ret-Vit 1996; 4(1): 482-487.

22. Clayman HM, Jaffe NS, Light DS, Jaffe MS, Cassady JC. Intraocular lenses, axial length, and retinal detachment. Am J Ophthalmol. 1981;92(6):778- 80.

23. Hyams SW, Bialik M, Neumann E. Myopia-aphakia. I. Prevalence of retinal detachment. Br J Ophthalmol. 1975;59(9):480-482.

24. Barraquer C, Cavelier C, Mejía LF. Incidence of retinal detachment following clear-lens extraction in myopic patients. Retrospective analysis. Arch Ophthalmol. 1994;112(3):336-339.

25. Petousis V, Sallam AA, Haynes RJ, Patel CK, Tyagi AK, Kirkpatrick JN, et al. Risk factors for retinal detachment following cataract surgery: the impact of posterior capsular rupture. Br J Ophthalmol. 2016;100(11):1461- 1465.

26. Olsen T, Jeppesen P. The incidence of retinal detachment after cataract surgery. Open Ophthalmol J. 2012;6:79-82.

27. Chen SN, Lian IeB, Wei YJ. Epidemiology and clinical characteristics of rhegmatogenous retinal detachment in Taiwan. Br J Ophthalmol. 2016;100(9):1216-1220.

28. Haug SJ, Bhisitkul RB. Risk factors for retinal detachment following cataract surgery. Curr Opin Ophthalmol. 2012;23(1):7-11.

29. Laube T, Brockmann C, Lehmann N, Bornfeld N. Pseudophakic retinal detachment in young-aged patients. PLoS One. 2017;12(8):e0184187.

30. Fotedar R, Wang JJ, Burlutsky G, Morgan IG, Rose K, Wong TY, et al. Distribution of axial length and ocular biometry measured using partial coherence laser interferometry (IOL Master) in an older White population. Ophthalmology. 2010;117(3):417-423.

31. Haigis W. Biometrie bei komplizierten Ausgangssituationen. In: Rochels R, Duncker G, Hartmann C, editors. Proceedings of the 9th Congress of the German-speaking Society for Intraocular Lens Implantation, Interventional and Refractive Surgery (DGII), 1995 Mar 17-19, Kiel, Germany. Berlin: Springer;1995. p. 17-26.

32. Olsen T, Arnarsson A, Sasaki H, Sasaki K, Jonasson F. On the ocular refractive components: the Reykjavik Eye Study. Acta Ophthalmol Scand. 2007;85(4):361-366.

33. Hayreh SS, Jonas JB. Posterior vitreous detachment: clinical correlations. Ophthalmologica. 2004;218 (5):333-343.

34. Jakobsson G, Montan P, Zetterberg M, Stenevi U, Behndig A, Lundström M. Capsule complication during cataract surgery: Retinal detachment after cataract surgery with capsule complication: Swedish Capsule Rupture Study Group report 4. J Cataract Refract Surg. 2009;35(10):1699-1705.

35. Quek DT, Lee SY, Htoon HM, Ang CL. Pseudophakic rhegmatogenous retinal detachment in a large Asian tertiary eye centre: a cohort study. Clin Exp Ophthalmol. 2012;40(1):e1-7.

36. Yoshida A, Ogasawara H, Jalkh AE, Sanders RJ, McMeel JW, Schepens CL. Retinal detachment after cataract surgery. Predisposing factors. Ophthalmology. 1992;99(3):453-459.

37. Smolin G. Statistical analysis of retinal holes and tears. Am J Ophthalmol. 1965;60(6):1055.

38. Norton ED. Retinal detachment in aphakia. Trans Am Ophthalmol Soc. 1963;61:770-789.

39. Hawkins WR. Aphakic retinal detachment. Ophthalmic Surg 1975;6(2):66-74. 40. O’Connor PR. External bucking without drainage for selected detachment in aphakic eyes. Am J Ophthalmol 1976;82(3):358-364.

41. Ashrafzadeh MT, Schepens CL, Elzeneiny II, Moura R, Morse P, Kraushar MF. Aphakic and phakic retinal detachment. I. Preoperative findings. Arch Ophthalmol. 1973;89(6):476-483.

42. Ho PC, Tolentino FI. Pseudophakic retinal detachment. Surgical success rate with various types of IOLs. Ophthalmology 1984;91(7):847-852.

43. Cousins S, Boniuk I, Okun E, Johnston GP, Arribas NP, Escoffery RF, et al. Pseudophakic retinal detachments in the presence of various IOL types. Ophthalmology. 1986;93(9):1198-1208.

44. Yoshida A, Ogasawara H, Jalkh AE, Sanders RJ, McMeel JW, Schepens CL. Retinal detachment after cataract surgery. Surgical results. Ophthalmology. 1992;99(3):460-465.

45. Wilkinson CP. Pseudophakic retinal detachments. Retina. 1985;5(1):1-4.

46. Ahmadieh H, Moradian S, Faghihi H, Parvaresh MM, Ghanbari H, Mehryar M, et al; Pseudophakic and Aphakic Retinal Detachment (PARD) Study Group. Anatomic and visual outcomes of scleral buckling versus primary vitrectomy in pseudophakic and aphakic retinal detachment: sixmonth follow-up results of a single operation--report no. 1. Ophthalmo- logy. 2005;112(8):1421-1429.

47. Jun BY, Shin JP, Kim SY. Clinical characteristics and surgical outcomes of pseudophakic and aphakic retinal detachments. Korean J Ophthalmol. 2004;18(1):58-64.

48. Hasanreisoğlu B, Aksünger A, Or M, Onol M, Akbatur HH, Akata F, et al. Afak retina dekolmanı klinik özellikleri ile anatomik ve görsel sonuçlar. Ret-Vit 1996;4(1):475-481.

49. Moradian S, Ahmadieh H, Faghihi H, Ramezani A, Entezari M, Banaee T, et al. Comparison of four surgical techniques for management of pseudophakic and aphakic retinal detachment: a multicenter clinical trial. Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol. 2016; 254(9): 1743-1751.

50. Walter P, Hellmich M, Baumgarten S, Schiller P, Limburg E, Agostini H, et al; VIPER Study Group. Vitrectomy with and without encircling band for pseudophakic retinal detachment: VIPER Study Report No 2-main results. Br J Ophthalmol. 2017;101(6):712-718.

51. Baumgarten S, Schiller P, Hellmich M, Walter P, Agostini H, Junker B, et al; VIPER Study Group. Vitrectomy with and without encircling band for pseudophakic retinal detachment with inferior breaks: VIPER Study Report No. 3. Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol. 2018;256(11):2069-2073.

51. He Y, Zeng S, Zhang Y, Zhang J. Risk factors for retinal redetachment after silicone oil removal: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Ophthalmic Surg Lasers Imaging Retina. 2018;49(6):416-424.

53. Kon CH, Asaria RHY, Occleston NL, Khaw PT, Aylward GW. Risk factors for proliferative vitreoretinopathy after primary vitrectomy: A prospective study. Br J Ophthalmol. 2000;84(5):506-511.

54. Gopal L, Nagpal A, Kabra S, Roy J. Anterior chamber collapse following vitreoretinal surgery with gas tamponade in aphakic eyes: incidence and risk factors. Retina. 2006;26(9):1014-1020.

Kaynak Göster