Mechanical recovery of a native forest with shrubs of the Espinal Ecoregion (Argentina)

The invasion of woody plants in various parts of the world has been a longstanding concern in livestock production due to the expected negative impact on secondary production. Native forests cover 30% of the earth’s land surface. A great part of the livestock production of Entre Ríos is developed in these ecosystems, which have been highly degraded due to inadequate cattle management, and the invasion of shrub species. The aim of this study was to evaluate the natural pasture recovery in a degraded native forest, subjected to a mechanical intervention with a frontal roller-chopping, in order to increase the grazing area and improve secondary productivity. The study was carried out in Paraná Department (Entre Ríos, Argentina). On 15/12/2014 a mechanical intervention was carried out with a frontal roller-chopping designed by the Chair Ecology of Agricultural Systems. To evaluate the dynamics of the recovery of the natural grassland of the native forest, seven measurements were made on the following dates: 15/05, 12/06, 28/07, 11/09, 27/10 and 21/12/2015, and 22/02/2016. The vegetation cover was measured with the line intercept method and phytomass production. In each of the evaluations, forage species cover was higher in the mechanically intervened area, presenting significant differences with respect to the control and registering an average relative increase of 47% at the end of the trial. In the section where mechanical intervention had been made, the coverage of Baccharis punctulata showed a marked decrease during all the measurements with respect to the control, obtaining an average decrease of 91.8% at the end of the sampling. Mechanical intervention enables the cover of shrubs that compete with natural grassland in a degraded native forest to be reduced, while also recovering forage vegetable species and thus improving primary production, due to a raise in the forage availability because of increased grazing area.

Espinal Ekolojik Bölgesindeki bir ormanda mekanik müdahele ile çalılar üzerinde sağlanan iyileşme (Arjantin)

Dünyanın çeşitli yerlerinde odunsu bitkilerin işgali, ikincil üretim üzerinde beklenen olumsuz etki nedeniyle canlı hayvan üretiminde uzun zamandır devam eden bir endişe kaynağı olmaktadır. Yerli ormanlar dünyanın toprak yüzeyinin %30’unu kaplamaktadır. Entre Ríos’un hayvancılık üretiminin büyük bir kısmı, yetersiz sığır yönetimine ve çalı türlerinin istilasına bağlı olarak büyük ölçüde bozulmuş olan bu ekosistemlerde geliştirilmiştir. Bu çalışmanın amacı, otlatma alanını arttırmak ve ikincil verimi artırmak amacıyla, önden silindirli doğrama ile mekanik müdahaleye maruz kalan, bozulmuş bir ormandaki doğal mera geri kazanımını değerlendirmektir. Çalışma Paraná Bölgesi’nde (Entre Ríos, Arjantin) gerçekleştirilmiştir. 15/12/2014 tarihinde, Ziraat Sistemleri Kürsüsü Ekolojisi tarafından tasarlanan bir önden silindirli doğrama makinesi ile mekanik bir müdahale gerçekleştirilmiştir. Doğal ormanın doğal otlaklarının toparlanma dinamiklerini değerlendirmek için, aşağıdaki tarihlerde yedi ölçüm yapılmıştır: 15/05, 12/06, 28/07, 11/09, 27/10 ve 21/12/2015 ve 22/02/2016. Bitki örtüsünün örtü hattı kesilme yöntemi ve fitoma üretimi ile ölçülmüştür. Değerlendirmelerin her birinde, yem türlerinin örtüleri mekanik olarak müdahale edilen alanda daha yüksek bulunmuş olup, kontrol açısından önemli farklılıklar göstermiştir. Deneme çalışması sonunda ortalama %47’lik bir nispi artış kaydedilmiştir. Mekanik müdahalenin yapıldığı bölgede, Baccharis punctulata’nın kapsamı, tüm ölçümler sırasında kontrol açısından belirgin bir düşüş göstermiştir ve örneklemenin sonunda %91,8’lik bir ortalama düşüş elde edilmiştir. Mekanik müdahale ile bozulmuş otlak alanlardaki doğal otlakla rekabet eden çalı örtüsü azaltılmış, aynı zamanda otları bitki türlerini geri kazanarak, otlatma alanlarındaki yem artışı nedeniyle birincil üretimi iyileştirmektedir.

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