Traditional knowledge and modern trends for Asian medicinal plants in Bulgaria from an ethnobotanical view

Giriş: Asya tıbbi bitkileri, Bulgaristan’ın gelenekleri ve halk botanik bilgisinin ayrılmaz bir parçasıdır ve, geçmişten şimdiye kadar, Bulgaristan pazarlarında yerleri vardır. Geçtiğimiz 10 yıl içinde, yeni bitki kaynaklı ürünlere olan ilgi artmış durumdadır. Materyal ve Metot: Bu çalışma, Bulgaristan pazarlarında son zamanlarda mevcut bulunan tıbbi bitki kaynaklı ürünler ve Asya tıbbi bitkilerinin çeşitleri hakkındaki gerçekleri ortaya çıkarmayı amaçlamaktadır. Araştırma verileri, alandan toplanan bilgilerin yanısıra, tıbbi bitkiler ve görüşmelere dair bilgileri içeren milli veri bankalarından, 7 senelik bir periyotta (2003-2010) toplanmıştır. Bulgular: 38 aile ve 137 cinse ait 185’den fazla tür tespit edildi. Sadece 20 türün, bitki kaynaklı ürünlerde çoğunlukla kullanıldığı görüldü. Örneğin Panax ginseng, Eleuterococcus senticosus, Ginkgo bilоba, Camellia sinensis, Zingiber officinale, Rhodiola rosea, Euphorbia pallasii, Scutelaria baicalensis, Garcinia cambogia, Hibiscus spp., Cinnamomum verum, Piper nigrum, Curcuma zedoaria, Syzigium aromaticum, vb. Bunların çoğu; bitki ekstrat ürünleri, şifalı otlarla hazırlanan ilaçlar, baharatlar, genellikle bağışıklık sistemi stimülantı oldukları anlaşılan gıda ve gıda katkı maddeleri, hafıza artırıcılar, anti tümör etmenleri, sakinleştiriciler, afrodizyaklar, antimikotikler, zindelik ve sıhhat için içilen çaylar, kilo kaybettiriciler, uyarıcılar, kan basıncını azaltan bileşikler olabilmektedir. Sonuç: Türlerden bazıları geçmişte farklı amaçlarla kullanılmaktayken, diğerleri hiç bilinmemekteydi. Yeni kombinasyonların ve Bulgaristan’ın ve Asya’nın geleneksel tıb bitkilerini içeren karışımların varlığı gözlendi. Bu özel durumun gelişmesi, modern yaşamda geleneksel tıb olgusu, etnobotanikçiler açısından özellikle ilgi çelicidir ve çalışma içersinde derinlemesine tartışılmaktadır.

Etnobotanik bakış açısından, Bulgaristan’da Asya tıbbi bitkilerine dair geleneksel bilgiler ve modern eğilimler

Background: Asian medicinal plants are an integral part of the Bulgarian traditions and folk botanical knowledge and as from the past until now, have their place in the Bulgarian market. In the last decade the interest in new plant-based products has increased. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted with the aim to bring out the facts about the diversity of Asian medicinal plants, present in medicinal plant-based products that are recently available on the Bulgarian market. The survey data was gathered during a period of 7 years (2003- 2010) from the main national databases that contain information about herbal medicines and interviews, along with field-collected data. Results: More than 185 species of medicinal plants, belonging to 38 families and 137 genera were registered. Only twenty species were found to be used mostly in plant-based products for example Panax ginseng, Eleuterococcus senticosus, Ginkgo bilоba, Camellia sinensis, Zingiber officinale, Rhodiola rosea, Euphorbia pallasii, Scutelaria baicalensis, Garcinia cambogia, Hibiscus spp., Cinnamomum verum, Piper nigrum, Curcuma zedoaria, Syzigium aromaticum, etc. Most of them can be compounds of plant extract products, herbal remedies, spices, food and food additives, which are mainly proved to be beneficial as immune stimulants, memory enhancers, antitumor agents, sedatives, aphrodisiacs, antimycotics, wellness tea, body weight reducers, stimulants, blood pressure reducers, etc. Conclusions: Some of the species were used in the past for different purposes, while others are completely unknown and exotic. The occurrence of new combinations and mixtures containing both traditional Bulgarian and Asian folk medicine herbs was observed. This particular way of development, of traditional medicine in modern life, is of special interest to the ethnobotanists and is discussed further in the study.

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