Acoustic emission signal ‘peak amplitude-distribution’ analysis related to concrete fracture under uniaxial compression

Acoustic emissions (AE) released during the compressive fracture of cementitious materials have been subjected to analysis using ‘AE based b-value’ to study the frac- ture process. Identification of the ‘AE sources locations’ in three dimension is not al- ways possible. With a minimum number of AE sensors mounted on the test specimen and by using the AE based b-value analysis, it is possible to study fracture process and the damage status in solids. The b-value of AE is calculated using the Gutenberg– Richter empirical relationship (G-R law), which is available in seismology. The details related to original G-R relation and it’s suitability for AE testing were discussed. In this article it has been tried to look into the variations of the AE based b-value in cementitious test specimens prepared with different cementitious mixture propor- tions. Effect of (i) coarse aggregate size in cementitious materials (ii) loading rate during compressive fracture process (iii) age of concrete on b-value variation were discussed. The trend of variation in AE based b-value during fracture process in con- crete and mortar was different. It was observed that when the compression tough- ness of the cementitious material increases, higher b-values were observed. When the loading rate was high, quick cracking occurred and lower b-values were ob- served. As the coarse aggregate size in the cementitious material increases, the cu- mulative AE energy was higher. The reason may be due to the compression tough- ness of the cementitious material. The AE based b-value is useful to identify the dif- ferent stages of compressive fracture process in solids.

Kaynakça

Carpinteri A, Lacidogna G, Pugno N (2006). Richter’s laws at the labor- atory scale interpreted by acoustic emission. Magazine of Concrete Research, 58(9), 619-625.

Colombo IS, Main IG, Forde MC (2003). Assessing damage of reinforced concrete beam using b-value analysis of Acoustic emission signals. Journal of Materials in Civil Engineering, 15(3), 280-286.

Grosse C, Ohtsu M (2008). Acoustic Emission Testing. Berlin, Springer- Verlag., Heidelberg:

Gutenberg B, Richter CF (1954). In Seismicity of the Earth and Associ- ated Phenomena, Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ, USA, 2nd Ed.

Holford KM (2000). Acoustic emission - Basic principles and future di- rections. Strain, 36(2), 51-54,

Ko W, Yu C (2009). Application of Gutenberg Richter Relation in AE Data Processing. International Journal of Applied Science and Engi- neering, 7(1), 69-78.

Kalyanasundaram P, Mukhopadhyay CK, SubbaRao SV (2007). Practi- cal acoustic emission. Narosa Publishing House private limited, New Delhi.

Kurz JH, Finck F, Grosse CU, Reinhardt HW (2006) Stress drop and stress redistribution in concrete quantified over time by the b-value analysis. Structural Health Monitoring, 5, 69–81.

Landis EN, Baillon L (2002). Experiments to Relate Acoustic Emission Energy to Fracture Energy of Concrete. Engineering Mechanics, 128(6), 698-702.

Mogi K (1962) Magnitude–frequency relation for elastic shocks accom- panying fracture of various materials and some related problems in earthquakes. Bulletin of Earthquake Research Institute, Tokyo Uni- versity, 40, 831–853.

Mehta PK, Monteiro PJM (2006) Concrete: Microstructure, properties and materials. McGraw-Hill, Third edition.

Nair A, Cai C (2010). Acoustic emission monitoring of bridges: Review and case studies. Engineering Structures, 32(6), 1704-1714.

Neville AM (2011). Properties of Concrete. Pearson Education Limited, Edinburgh Gate Harlow Essex CM20 2JE England.

Ohtsu M (1998). Basics of acoustic emission and applications to con- crete engineering, Materials Science and Research International, 4(3)131-140.

Pollock AA (1981). Acoustic emission amplitude distributions. Interna- tional Advances in Nondestructive Testing, 7, 215-239.

Datt P, Kapil JC, Kumar A (2015). Acoustic emission characteristics and b-value estimate in relation to waveform analysis for damage re- sponse of snow. Cold Regions Science and Technology, 117, 170-182.

Rao MVMS, Prasanna Lakshmi KJ (2005). Analysis of b- value and im- proved b-value of acoustic emissions accompanying rock fracture. Current Science, 89, 1577-1582.

RILEM TC 212-ACD (2010a). Acoustic emission and related NDE tech- niques for crack detection and damage evaluation in concrete. Measurement method for acoustic emission signals in concrete. Materials and Structures, 43(9), 1177-1181.

RILEM TC 212-ACD (2010b). Acoustic emission and related NDE tech- niques for crack detection and damage evaluation in concrete. Test Method for damage qualification of reinforced concrete beams by AE. Materials and Structures, 43(9), 1183-1186.

RILEM TC 212-ACD (2010c) Acoustic emission and related NDE tech- niques for crack detection and damage evaluation in concrete. Test method for classification of active cracks in concrete structures by acoustic emission. Materials and Structures, 43(9), 1187–1189.

Proverbio E (2011). Evaluation of deterioration in reinforced concrete structures by AE technique. Materials and Corrosion, 62(2), 161- 169.

Schumacher T, Higgins CC, Lovejoy SC (2011). Estimating operating load conditions on reinforced concrete highway bridges with b- value analysis from acoustic emission monitoring. Structural Health Monitoring, 10(1), 17-32.

Shiotani T, Yuyama S, Li Z, Ohtsu M (2001). Application of AE improved b-value to quantitative evaluation of fracture process in concrete materials. Journal of Acoustic Emission.

User’s Manual. AE win SAMOS Software (2004). Physical Acoustics Cor- poration, Princton Jct, NJ, USA.

Uchida, M, Okamoto T, Ohtsu M (2011). Damage of reinforced concrete qualified by AE. Challenge Journal of Concrete Research Letters, 2(3), 286-289.

vanMier JGM (1997). Fracture Process of Concrete. Assessment of ma- terial parameters for fracture models. CRC Press.

vanMier JGM (1998). Failure of concrete under uniaxial compression: An overview. Proceedings of the 3 rd International conference on Fracture mechanics of concrete and concrete structures (FraMCoS- 3), Gifu, Japan, AEDIFICATIO, Freiburg, Germany, 1169-1182.

Vidya Sagar R, Rao MVMS (2014). An experimental study on loading rate effect on acoustic emission based b-values related to reinforced concrete fracture. Construction and Building Materials, 70, 460-472.

Kaynak Göster