SUMER YAZININDA HAKARET: İKİ SUMER METNİNDE (ETCSL 5.4.11 VE 5.4.12) GEÇEN HAKARET İFADELERİ ÜZERİNE BAZI ETİMOLOJİK DÜŞÜNCELER

Bu çalışma, “O, bir köpeğin kaliteli bir tohumudur” ve “Ahmak Engardug” başlıklarıyla bilinen iki Sumer tartışma metninde geçen hakaret ifadelerinin analiziyle ilgilidir. Hakaret içerikli söylemlere Sumer tartışma ve diyalog metinlerinde sıklıkla yer verilmiştir. Eski Babil dönemine tarihlendirilen ve büyük olasılıkla okul metinleri olduğu düşünülen bu iki metinde, birisinin bir başkasını hedef aldığı çok sayıda hakaret ifadesi geçmektedir. Makalede bu hakaret ifadelerinin neler olduğu ve ne anlama geldiği üzerinde durulacaktır. Ayrıca bu kötü ifadelerin hangi toplumsal, kültürel ve bireysel unsurlarla ilişkili oldukları tespit edilmeye çalışılacaktır. Çalışmada büyük oranda söz konusu ifadelerin etimolojilerine dair birtakım düşünceler üzerinde durulacaktır. Nitekim metinler ilk satırlarından son satırlarına kadar bütünüyle belirli bir insana yöneltilmiş gibi gözüken ve aslında daha genel bir insan tipolojisini hedef alan hakaret içerikli ifadelerle dolu yoğun eleştirilerden oluşmaktadır.

INSULT IN SUMERIAN WRITING: RECONSIDERATION TO TWO INSULT TEXTS (ETCSL 5.4.11 AND 5.4.12)

This study is concerned with the analysis of insulting statements in two Sumerian diatribe texts known as “He is a good seed of a dog” and “Engardug the fool”. Insults are frequently mentioned in the Sumerian disputation and diatribe texts. These two texts are dated to the Old Babylonian period and are thought to be school texts. In these texts in question there are a number of insulting statements directed by someone against someone else. In this study, it will be mentioned that what kind of insults are used and what the insults mean and also will be focused on the relationships between the abusive language used in these texts and some social, cultural and individual elements in the ancient Mesopotamia. And some remarks on the etymology of the insulting statements in question will be emphasized. As a matter of fact, the both texts consist of the intense and harsh criticism accompanied by insults that seems to be directed to a certain individual from the first lines to the last lines, and that actually targets a more general human typology.

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