KÜLTÜR VARLIKLARININ KAÇAKÇILIĞI VE ARKEOLOJİK TAHRİBAT

Tarihi bir bütün olarak açıklama ve anlamada önemli kanıtlar sunan arkeolojik alanlar ve kültür varlıkları her dönemde ekonomik gelişme, savaş ya da kaçak kazılar gibi yıkıcı etkilerle karşı karşıya kalmıştır. Bu etkilerden en önemlisi ise kaçak kazı problemidir. Problem tek taraflı bir oluşum değildir. Her ne kadar yasa dışı ticarette pazarın arz tarafı önemli bir rol üstlense de talep tarafı da piyasaya güçlü bir yön vermektedir. Problemin en önemli özelliği olan gizliliği, kaçak kazıların boyutunu tespit edebilmede güçlük arz ederken diğer taraftan da bu kazıların yarattığı yıkımı ölçmenin gerekliliğini daha önemli hale getirmektedir. Kültür varlığı kaçakçılığı ve yasa dışı ticareti ile çoğunlukla sınır aşan bir suç niteliği şeklini alması ve insanlığın kültürel mirasına geri dönüşü olmayan zarar vermesi, sorunun tespiti ve özellikle çözüm yolları konusunda disiplinler arası çalışmaların gerekliliğini ortaya koymaktadır. Bu çalışma, kaçak kazı problemi ve ölçüm metotları, yasa dışı eski eser ticaretine katılan kaçak kazıcılar, aracılar ve izledikleri yöntemler üzerine yapılmıştır. Çalışma ile ayrıca kaçak kazı probleminin dünyanın genelinde bulunduğunun ancak Türkiye gibi zengin tarihi mirasa sahip ülkelerin sorundan önemli ölçüde etkilendiğinin görülmesi amaçlanmıştır.

THE ILLICIT TRAFFICKING OF CULTURAL PROPERTY AND ARCHAEOLOGICAL DAMAGE

The archaeological sites and antiquities which provide significant evidence for the explanation and the understanding of history as a whole have suffered destructive effects of economic development, war or looting in every period. The most important one of these destructive effects is the problem of looting. It is not a onesided problem. While the supply side of the market plays a major role in the illicit trade, the demand side also gives a strong direction to the market. Being a component of the nature of the problem, secrecy brings forth difficulty in the determination of the extent of looting; on the other hand, it give critical importance to the assessment of the destruction wreaked by looting. The fact that the looting of antiquities causes irreversible damage to the cultural property of the humankind and the illicit trade of antiquities generally constitutes a transnational crime brings about the necessity of interdisciplinary studies concerning the identification and especially the solutions of the problem. This study scrutinizes the problem of looting; the methods for the assessment of looting; the illicitexcavators and the intermediaries involved in the illicit trade of antiquities along with the methods they follow. Additionally, the study aims to present the fact that the problem of looting occurs in most parts of the world; however, countries like Turkey which have a rich historical heritage are significantly affected by the problem.

Kaynakça

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Kaynak Göster