Transformational Leadership, Subordinate Experience, and Subordinate Organizational Commitment: Different Leadership Strokes for Different Folks

Örgütsel bağlılık üzerinde transformasyonel liderliğin etkisi ile ilgili olarak doğrusal olmayan bir transformasyonel liderlik modeli geliştirdik ve bunu iki alan araştırması ile test ettik. 207 CEO’nun doğrudan raporlarından oluşan birinci çalışma; daha az tecrübeli yöneticilerin, CEO’ları liderlik yeteneklerini daha yüksek düzeyde sergilediklerinde, daha fazla örgütsel bağlılık hissettiklerini diğer taraftan daha tecrübeli yöneticilerin ise, CEO’ları liderlik yeteneklerini ılımlı seviyelerde sergilediklerinde, en yüksek düzeyde örgütsel bağlılık gösterdiklerini ortaya koymuştur. 178 lider-çalışan eşleşmesini kapsayan daha geniş bir örneklemden oluşan ikinci çalışmada, birinci çalışmadan elde ettiğimiz bulguları çoğalttık fakat ilave olarak rol belirginliğinin transformasyonel liderliğin örgütsel bağlılık üzerindeki etkisine tam manasıyla aracılık (mediator) ettiğini gösteren kanıtlar bulduk. Yapılan ilave analiz, görevle ilgili bilgi detayının bağlılık için bir aracı olmadığını ancak yönetici tarafından değerlendirilen çalışan performansı için bir aracı olduğunu ortaya koymuştur. Bulgularımız çalışanların farklı liderlik taleplerinin olabileceğinin ve onların transformasyonel liderliğe farklı tepkiler verebileceklerinin düşünülmesi gerektiğini vurgulamaktadır.

Transformasyonel Liderlik, Çalışanların Tecrübesi ve Çalışanların Örgütsel Bağlılığı: Farklı Çalışanlar İçin Farklı Liderlik Beklentileri

We developed a nonlinear model of transformational leadership on organizational com- mitment and tested it in two field studies. Study 1, which consisted of 207 CEO direct reports, revealed that lower experienced executives expressed more organizational com- mitment when their CEOs exhibited high levels of leadership while more experienced executives appeared most committed at moderate levels. In Study 2, using a broader sample of 178 leader–subordinate dyads, we replicated the findings from Study 1 but further found evidence that role clarity fully mediated transformational leadership effects on organizational commitment. A supplemental analysis revealed that while elaboration of task relevant information was not a mediator for commitment, it was for supervisor- rated employee performance. Our findings highlight the need to consider the different leadership demands of employees and the varying ways in which subordinates respond to transformational leadership.

Kaynakça

Allen, N.J. and Meyer, J.P. (1990). “The Measurement and Variables Associated with Affective, Continuance and Normative Commitment to the Organization,” Journal of Occupational Psychology, 63: 1-18. Allen, N.J. and Meyer, J.P. (1993). “Organizational Commitment: Evidence of Career Stage Effects?” Journal of Business Research, 26: 49-61. Allen, T.D., Freeman, D.M., Russell, E.A., Reizenstein, R.C., and Rentz, J.O. (2001). “Survivor Reactions to Organizational Downsizing: Does Time Ease the Pain?” Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 74: 145-164. Ang, S., Dyne, L.V., and Begley, T. (2003). “The Employment Relationships of Foreign Workers versus Local Employees: A Field Study of Organizational Justice, Job Satisfaction, Performance, and OCB,” Journal of Organizational Behavior, 24: 561-583. doi: 10.1002/job.202 Avolio, B.J. (1999). Full Leadership Development: Building the Vital Forces in Organizations. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. Avolio, B., Bass, B., and Jung, D. (1999). “Re-examining the Components of Transformational and Transactional Leadership using the Multi-factor Leadership Questionnaire,” Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 72: 441-462. Avolio, B., Zhu, W., Koh, W., and Bhatia, P. (2004). “Transformational Leadership and Organizational Commitment: Mediating Role of Psychological Empowerment and Moderating Role of Structural Distance,” Journal of Organizational Behavior, 25: 951-968. doi: 10.1002/job.283. Bantel, A.K. (1993). “Top Team, Environment and Performance Effects on Strategic Planning Formality,” Group and Organization Management, 18: 436-458. Baron, R.M. and Kenny, D.A. (1986). “Moderator-mediator Variables Distinction in Social Psychological Research: Conceptual, Strategic, and Statistical Considerations. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology,” 51: 1173-1182. Bass, B.M. (1985). Leadership and Performance beyond Expectations. New York: Free Press. ------, (1995). Universality of Transformational Leadership. Distinguished Scientific Awards Address, Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology, Orlando, FL. ------, (1999). “On the Taming of Charisma: A Reply to Janice Beyer,” Leadership Quarterly, 10: 541-553. Bass, B.M. and Avolio, B.J. (1990). “Developing Transformational Leadership: 1992 and Beyond,” Journal of European Industrial Training, 14(5): 21-27. ------, (1993). “Transformational Leadership: A Response to Critiques;” in M.M. Chemers and R. Ayman (eds.), Leadership Theory and Research Perspectives and Directions: 49-80. San Diego, CA: Academic Press. ------, (1994). Improving Organizational Effectiveness through Transformational Leadership. Thousand Oaks: Sage. ------, (1995). Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire: Manual Leader Form, Rater, and Scoring Key for MLQ (Form 5x-Short). Redwood City, CA: Mind Garden. ------, (1997). Full Range Leadership Development Manual for the Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire. Palo Alto, CA: Mind Garden. ------,. (2000). Effects on Platoon Readiness of Transformational/Transactional Platoon Leadership: Final Report. (Contract DASW01-96K-0008) US Army Research Institute for the Behavioral and Social Sciences. Bass, B.M. and Riggio, R.E. (2006). Transformational Leadership, 2nd ed. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. Bauer, T.N., Bodner, T., Erdoğan, B., Truxillo, D.M., and Tucker, J.S. (2007). “Newcomer Adjustment during Organizational Socialization: A Meta-analytic Review of Antecedents, Outcomes, and Methods,” Journal of Applied Psychology, 92: 707-721. doi: 10.1037/0021-9010.92.3.707 Becker, K., and Wilson, C. (2000). “Development of Affective Organizational Commitment: A Cross-sequential Examination of Change with Tenure,” Journal of Vocational Behavior, 56: 114-136. doi: 10.1006/jvbe.1999.1712 Bello, D., Leung, K., Radebaugh, L., Tung, R.L., and van Witteloostuijn, A. (2009). “From the Editors: Student Samples in International Business Research,” Journal of International Business Studies, 40: 361-364. doi: 10.1057/jibs.2008.101 Blanchard, K. (2007). “Top Challenges: Shore Up Your Leadership Talent,” Leadership Excellence, 24(6): 4. Blau, P.M. (1964). Exchange and Power in Social Life. New York: Wiley. Boeker, W. (1997). “Executive Migration and Strategic Change: The Effect of Top Manager Movement on Product Market Entry,” Administrative Science Quarterly, 42: 213-236. Bono, J.E. and Judge, T.A. (2003). “Self-concordance at Work: Toward Understanding the Motivational Effects of Transformational Leaders,” Academy of Management Journal, 46(5): 554-571. doi: 10.2307/30040649 Bradley, J.F. (2010). Preventing, Addressing, and Managing Team Conflict through Effective Conflict Management Planning. Conference proceedings publication: Joint conferences 2010 Academic Business World International Conference and International Conference on Learning and Administration in Higher Education. Brass, D.J. (1984). “Being in the Right Place: A Structural Analysis of Individual Influence in an Organization,” Administrative Science Quarterly, 29: 518-539. Brimeyer, T.M., Perrucci, R., and Wadsworth, S.M. (2010). “Age, Tenure, Resources for Control, and Organizational Commitment,” Social Science Quarterly, 91(2): 511-530. doi: 10.1111/j.1540-6237.2010.00705.x Brislin, R.W. (1980). “Translation and Content Analysis of Oral and Written Materials,” in H.C. Triandis and J.W. Berry (eds.), Handbook of Cross-cultural Psychology: (2): 389-444. Boston, MA: Allyn and Bacon. Brodbeck, F.C., Kerschreiter, R., Mojzisch, A., and Schulz-Hardt, S. (2007). “Improving Group Decision Making Under Conditions of Distributed Knowledge: The Information Asymmetries Model,” Academy of Management Review, 32: 459-479. doi: 10.5465/AMR.2007.24351441 Brutus, S., Ruderman, M.N., Ohlott, P.J., and McCauley, C.D. (2000). “Developing from Job Experiences: The Role of Organization-based Self-esteem,” Human Resource Development Quarterly, 11: 367-380. Burkhardt, M.E. and Brass, D.J. (1990). Changing Patterns or Patterns of Change: The Effect of a Change in Technology on Social Network Structure and Power,” Administrative Science Quarterly, 35: 104-127. Burns, J.M. (1978). Leadership. New York: Harper and Row. Chen, G. and Bliese, P.D. (2002). “The Role of Different Levels of Leadership in Predicting Self and Collective Efficacy: Evidence for Discontinuity,” Journal of Applied Psychology, 87: 549-556. doi: 10.1037//0021-9010.873.3.549 Colbert, A.E., Kristof-Broiatn, A.L., Bradley, B.H., and Barrick, M.R. (2008). “CEO Transformational Leadership: The Role of Goal Importance Congruence in Top Management Teams,” Academy of Management Journal, 51: 81-96. doi: 10.5465/AMJ.2008.30717744 Coyle-Shapiro, J. and Shore, L. (2007). “The Employee-organization Relationship: Where Do We Go from Here?” Human Resource Management Review, 17(2): 166-179. doi: 10.1016/j.hrmr.2007.03.008 Cropanzano, R. and Mitchell, M.S. (2005). “Social Exchange Theory: An Interdisciplinary Review,” Journal of Management, 31(6): 874-900. doi: 10.1177/0149206305279602 Croson, R. and Donohue, K. (2006a). “Upstream versus Downstream Information and Its Impact on the Bullwhip Effect,” System Dynamics Review, 21: 249-260. doi: 10.1002/sdr.320 ------, (2006b). “Behavioral Causes of the Bullwhip Effect and the Observed Value of Inventory Information,” Management Science, 52(3): 323-336. doi: 10.1287/mnsc.1050.0436 Culpepper, R.A., Gamble, J.E., and Blubaugh, M.G. (2004). “Employee Stock Ownership Plans and Three-component Commitment,” Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 77: 155-170. doi: 10.1348/096317904774202126 Dallner, M., Elo A.L., Gamberale, F., Hottinen, V., Knardahl, S., Lindstron, K., Skogstad, A., and Orhede, E. (2000). Validation of the General Nordic Questionnaire (QPSNordic) for Psychological and Social Factors at Work,” Copenhagen: Nordic Council of Ministers. Davies, J. and Easterby-Smith, M. (1984). “Learning and Developing from Managerial Work Experiences,” Journal of Management Studies, 21: 169-183. de Vries, R.E., Roe, R.A., and Taillieu, T.C.B. (1998). “Need for Supervision,” The Journal of Applied Behavioral Science, 34(4): 486-501. Dionne S.D., Yammarino F.J., Atwater L.E., and Spangler, W.D. (2003). “Transformational Leadership and Team Performance,” Journal of Organizational Change Management, 17(2): 177-193. doi: 10.1108/09534810410530601 Dorfman, P.W. and Howell, J.P. (1988). “Dimensions of National Culture and Effective Leadership Patterns: Hofstede Revisited,” in E.G. McGoun (ed.), Advances in International Comparative Management: 3: 127-149. Greenwich, CT: JAI Press. Dubinsky, A.J., Yammarino, F.J., Jolson, M.A., and Spangler, W.D. (1995). “Transformational Leadership: An Initial Investigation in Salespeople,” The Journal of Personal Selling and Sales Management, 15(2): 17-35. Dunham, R.B., Grube, J.A., and Castaneda, M.B. (1994). “Organizational Commitment: The Utility of an Integrative Definition,” Journal of Applied Psychology, 79: 370-380. Eisenberger, R., Fasolo, P., and Davis-LaMastro, V. (1990). “Perceived Organizational Support and Employee Diligence, Commitment, and Innovation,” Journal of Applied Psychology, 75: 51-59. Eisenberger, R., Huntington, R., Hutchison, S., and Sowa, D. (1986). “Perceived Organizational Support,” Journal of Applied Psychology, 71: 500-507. Eisenhardt, K.M. and Schoonhoven, C.B. (1990). “Organizational Growth: Linking Founding Team, Strategy, Environment, and Growth among U.S. Semiconductor Ventures, 1978-1988,” Administrative Science Quarterly, 35: 504-529. Evans, M.G. (1996). “R.J. House’s ‘A Path-goal Theory of Leader Effectiveness,’” Leadership Quarterly, 7(3): 305-309. Fiedler, F.E. (1964). “A Contingency Model of Leadership Effectiveness,” Advances in Experimental Social Psychology, 1: 149-190. Fu P.P., Tsui A.S., Liu J., and Li, L. (2010). “Pursuit of Whose Happiness? Executive Leaders’ Transformational Behaviors and Personal Values,” Administrative Science Quarterly, 55(2): 222-254. Geletkanycz, M.A., and Black, S.S. (2001). “Bound by the Past? Experience-based Effects on Commitment to the Strategic Status Quo,” Journal of Management, 27(1): 3-21. Giri, V.N. and Santra, T. (2010). “Effects of Job Experience, Career Stage, and Hierarchy on Leadership Style,” Singapore Management Review, 32(1): 85-93. Givens, R.J. (2008). “Transformational Leadership: The Impact on Organizational and Personal Outcomes,” Emerging Leadership Journey, 1: 4-24. Graen, G. and Cashman, J.F. (1975). “A Role Making Model in Formal Organizations: A Developmental Approach,” in J.G. Hunt and L.L. Larson (eds.), Leadership Frontiers: 143-165. Kent, OH: Kent State Press. Gunz, H.P. and Jalland, R.M. (1996). “Managerial Careers and Business Strategies,” Academy of Management Review, 21: 718-756. Hall, M. (2008). “The Effect of Comprehensive Performance Measurement Systems on Role Clarity, Psychological Empowerment and Managerial Performance,” Accounting, Organizations and Society, 33(2/3): 141-163. doi: 10.1016/j.aos.2007.02.004 Hambley, L., Kline, T.J.B., and O’Neill, T.A. (2005). “The Effects of Leadership Style and Communication Medium on Team Interaction Styles and Outcomes.” Paper presented at the 2005 Academy of Management Annual Meeting. Hambrick, D.C., Geletkanycz, M.A., and Fredrickson, J.W. (1993). “Top Management Commitment to the Status Quo: Some Tests of Its Determinants,” Strategic Management Journal, 14: 401-418. Harris, K.J. and Kacmar, K.M. (2006). “Too much of a Good Thing: The Curvilinear Effect of Leader- member Exchange on Stress,” Journal of Social Psychology, 146(1): 65-84. Hersey, P. (1985). The Situational Leader. New York, NY: Warner Books. Hersey, P., Blanchard, K.H., and Hambleton, R.K. (1988). Contracting for Leadership Style: A Process and Instrumentation for Building Effective Work Relationships. University Associates. Higgins, M.C. and Kram, K.E. (2001). “Reconceptualizing Mentoring at Work: A Developmental Network Perspective,” Academy of Management Review, 26(2): 264-288. doi: 10.5465/AMR.2001.4378023 House. J.S. (1972). The Relationship of Intrinsic and Extrinsic Work Motivations to Occupational Stress and Coronary Heart Disease Risk. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor. Hunter, L.W. and Thatcher, S.M.B. (2007). “Feeling the Heat: Effects of Stress, Commitment, and Job Experience on Job Performance,” Academy of Management Journal, 50(4), 953-968. doi: 10.5465/ AMJ.2007.2627922 Janssen, O. and Van Yperen, N.W. (2004). “Employees’ Goal Orientations, the Quality of Leader- member Exchange, and the Outcomes of Job Performance and Job Satisfaction,” Academy of Management Journal, 47(3): 368-384. doi: 10.2307/20159587. Jex, S. (2002). Organizational Psychology. New York, NY: John Wiley and Sons Inc. Johnston, Mark W., Parasuraman, A., Futrell, C.M., and Black, W.C. (1990). “A Longitudinal Assessment of the Impact of Selected Organizational Influences on Salespeople’s Organizational Commitment during Early Employment,” Journal of Marketing Research, 27: 333-344. Jokisaari, M., and Nurmi, J.E. (2009). “Change in Newcomers’ Supervisor Support and Socialization Outcomes after Organizational Entry,” The Academy of Management Journal, 52(3): 527-544. doi: 10.5465/AMJ.2009.41330971 Judge T.A., Erez A, Bono J.E., and Thoresen C.J. (2003). “The Core Self-evaluations Scale: Development of a Measure,” Personnel Psychology, 56(2): 303-331. doi: 10.1111/j.1744-6570.2003.tb00152.x Judge, T.A. and Bono, J.E. (2000). “Five-factor Model of Personality and Transformational Leadership,” Journal of Applied Psychology, 85(5): 751-765. doi: 10.1037//0021-9010.85.5.751 Jung, D. and Sosik, J. (2002). “Transformational Leadership in Work Groups: The Role of Empowerment Cohesiveness, and Collective-efficacy on Perceived Group Performance,” Small Group Research, 33(3): 313-336. doi: 10.1177/10496402033003002 Jung, D., Yammarino, F.J., and Lee, J. K. (2009). “Moderating Role of Subordinates’ Attitudes on Transformational Leadership and Effectiveness: A Multi-cultural and Multi-level Perspective,” The Leadership Quarterly, 20(4): 586-603. doi:10.1016/j.leaqua.2009.04.011 Kahn, R.L., Wolfe, D.M., Quinn, R.P., Snoek, J.D., and Rosenthal, R. A. (1964). Organizational Stress: Studies in Role Conflict and Ambiguity. New York, NY: John Wiley and Sons Inc. Kark, R. and Shamir, B. (2002). “The Dual Effects of Transformational Leadership: Priming Relational and Collective Selves and Further Effects on Followers,” in B.J. Avolio, and F.J. Yammarina (eds.), Transformational and Charismatic Leadership: The Road Ahead: 2: 67-91. Oxford, U.K.: Elsevier Science. Kark, R., Shamir, B., and Chen, G. (2003). “The Two Faces of Transformational Leadership: Empowerment and Dependency,” Journal of Applied Psychology, 88(2): 246-255. doi: 10.1037/0021-9010.88.2.246 Kearney, E. and Gebert, D. (2009). “Managing Diversity and Enhancing Team Outcomes: The Promise of Transformational Leadership,” Journal of Applied Psychology, 94(1): 77-98. doi: 10.1037/a0013077 Kearney, E., Gebert. D., and Voelpel. S.C. (2009). “When and How Diversity Benefits Teams: The Importance of Team Members’ Need for Cognition,” Academy of Management Journal, 52(3): 581- 598. DOI: 10.5465/AMJ.2009.41331431 Kirkman, B.L. and Shapiro, D.L. (2001). “The Impact of Cultural Values on Job Satisfaction and Organizational Commitment in Self-managing Work Teams: The Mediating Role of Employee Resistance,” Academy of Management Journal, 44(3): 557-569. doi: 10.2307/3069370 Kirkman, B.L., Lowe, K.B., and Gibson, C.B. (2006). “A Quarter Century of Culture’s Consequences: A Review of Empirical Research Incorporating Hofstede’s Cultural Values Framework. Journal of International Business Studies, 37(3): 285-320. doi: 10.1057/palgrave.jibs.8400202 Kirkman, B.L., Chen, G., Farh, J.L., Chen, Z.X., and Lowe, K.B. (2009). “Individual Power Distance Orientation and Follower Reactions to Transformational Leaders: A Cross-level, Cross-cultural Examination. The Academy of Management Journal, 52(4): 744-764. doi: 10.5465/AMJ.2009.43669971 Lambert, S.J. (2000). “Added Benefits: The Link between Work-life Benefits and Organizational Citizenship Behavior,” Academy of Management Journal, 43(5): 801-815. doi: 10.2307/1556411 Ling, Y., Lubatkin, M.H., Şimşek, Z., and Veiga, J.F. (2008). “The Impact of Transformational CEOs on the Performance of Small- to Medium-sized Firms: Does Organizational Context Matter?” Journal of Applied Psychology, 93(4): 923-934. doi: 10.1037/0021-9010.93.4.923 Lo, May-Chiun, Ramayah, T., Min, H.W., and Songan, P. (2010). “Relationship between Leadership Styles and Organizational Commitment in Malaysia: Role of Leader-member Exchange.” Asia Pacific Business Review, 16(1/2): 79-103. doi: 10.1080/13602380903355676 Loi, R., Mao, Y., and Ngo, H.Y. (2009). “Linking Leader-member Exchange and Employee Work Outcomes: The Mediating Role of Organizational Social and Economic Exchange,” Management and Organization Review, 5(3): 401-422. doi: 10.1111/j.1740-8784.2009.00149.x Marion, R. and Uhl-Bien, M. (2001). “Leadership in Complex Organizations,” The Leadership Quarterly, 12(4): 389-418. Mathieu, J.E., and Zajac, D.M. (1990). “A Review and Meta-analysis of the Antecedents, Correlates, and Consequences of Organizational Commitment,” Psychological Bulletin, 108: 171-194. McShane, S.L. and Von Glinow, M.A. (2000). Organizational Behavior. Boston: Irwin/McGraw-Hill. Meade, A. and Kroustalis, C.M. (2005). “Problems with Item Parceling for Confirmatory Factor Analysis Tests of Measurement Invariance of Factor Loadings.” Paper presented at the 20th annual meeting of the Society for Industrial/Organizational Psychology, Los Angeles, CA. Mehra, A., Kilduff, M., and Brass, D.J. (2001). “The Social Networks of High and Low Self-Monitors: Implications for Workplace Performance,” Administrative Science Quarterly, 46: 121-146. Meyer, J.P. and Allen, N.J. (1991). “A Three Component Conceptualization of Organizational Commitment,” Human Resource Management Review, (1): 61-89. Miller, V. and Jablin, F. (1991). “Information Seeking during Organizational Entry: Influences, Tactics and a Model of the Process,” Academy of Management Review, 16: 92-120. Milliken, F.J. (1990). “Perceiving and Interpreting Environmental Change: An Examination of College Administrators’ Interpretation of Changing Demographics,” Academy of Management Journal, 33: 42-63. Moscoso, S. and Iglesias, M. (2009). “Job Experience and Big Five Personality Dimensions,” International Journal of Selection and Assessment,” 17(2): 239-242. doi: 10.1111/j.1468-2389.2009.00466.x Mowday, R.T., Steers, R.M., and Porter, L.W. (1979). “The Measurement of Organizational Commitment,” Journal of Vocational Behavior, 14: 224-247. Mowday, R.T., Porter L.W., and Steers R. (1982). Employee-organization Linkages: The Psychology of Commitment, Absenteeism, and Turnover. New York: Academic Press. Napier, B.J. and Ferris, G.R. (1993). “Distance in Organizations,” Human Resource Management Review, 3: 321-357. O’Reilly, C.A. and Caldwell, D.F. (1980). “Job Choice: The Impact of Intrinsic and Extrinsic Factors on Subsequent Satisfaction and Commitment,” Journal of Applied Psychology, 65: 559-565. Osborn, R.N. and Marion, R. (2009). “Contextual Leadership, Transformational Leadership and the Performance of International Innovation Seeking Alliances,” The Leadership Quarterly, 20(2): 191- 206. doi: 10.1016/j.leaqua.2009.01.010 Papworth, M.A., Milne, D., and Boak, G. (2009). “An Exploratory Content Analysis of Situational Leadership,” Journal of Management Development, 28(7): 593-606.doi: 10.1108/02621710910972706 Pearce, J.L. (1993). “Toward an Organizational Behavior of Contract Laborers: Their Psychological Involvement and Effects on Employee Co-workers,” Academy of Management Journal, 36: 1082-1098. Pfeffer, J. and Langton, N. (1993). “The Effect of Wage Dispersion on Satisfaction, Productivity, and Working Collaboratively: Evidence from College and University Faculty,” Administrative Science Quarterly, 38: 382-407. Podsakoff, P.M., MacKenzie, S.B., Ahearne, M., and Bommer, W.H. (1995). “Searching for a Needle in a Haystack: Trying to Identify the Illusive Moderators of Leadership Behaviors,” Journal of Management, 21(3): 422-470. doi: 10.1177/014920639502100303 Podsakoff, P.M., MacKenzie, S.B., Lee, J.Y., and Podsakoff, N.P. (2003). “Common Method Biases in Behavioral Research: A Critical Review of the Literature and Recommended Remedies,” Journal of Applied Psychology: 88(5): 879-903. doi: 10.1037/0021-9101.88.5.879 Polodny, J.M. and Baron, J.N. (1997). “Relationships and Resources: Social Networks and Mobility in the Workplace,” American Sociological Review, 62: 673-693. Porter, L.W. and McLaughlin, G.B. (2006). “Leadership and the Organizational Context: Like the Weather?” The Leadership Quarterly, 17(6): 559-576. doi: 10.1016/j.leaqua.2006.10.002 Quinones, M.A., Ford, J.K., and Teachout, M.S. (1995). “The Relationship between Work Experience and Job Performance: A Conceptual and Meta-analytic Review,” Personnel Psychology, 48: 887-910. Resick, C.J., Whitman, D.S., Weingarden, S.M., and Hiller, N.J. (2009). “The Bright-side and the Dark- side of CEO Personality: Examining Core Self-evaluations, Narcissism, Transformational Leadership, and Strategic Influence,” Journal of Applied Psychology, 94(6): 1365-1381. doi: 10.1037/a0016238 Rhoades, L., and Eisenberger, R. (2002). “Perceived Organizational Support: A Review of the Literature,” Journal of Applied Psychology, 87(4): 698-714. doi: 10.1037//0021-9010.87.4.698 Rizzo, J.R., House, R.J., and Lirtzman, S.I. (1970). “Role Conflict and Ambiguity in Complex Organizations,”.Administrative Science Quarterly, 15: 150-163. Romzek, B.S. (1990). “Employee Investment and Commitment: the Ties that Bind,” Public Administration Review, 50: 374-381. Rosenthal, R. and Rosnow, R.L. (2008). Beginning Behavioral Research: A Conceptual Primer. New Jersey: Prentice Hall. Rubin, R.S., Munz, D.C., and Bommer, W.H. (2005). “Leading from Within: The Effects of Emotion Recognition and Personality on Transformational Leadership Behavior,” Academy of Management Journal, 48(5): 845-858. doi: 10.5465/AMJ.2005.18803926. Schriesheim, C.A. and Neider, L.L. (1996). “Path-goal Leadership Theory: The Long and Winding Road,” The Leadership Quarterly, 7(3): 317-321. Schriesheim, C.A., Tepper, B.J., and Tetrault, L.A. (1994). “Least Preferred Co-worker Score, Situational Control, and Leadership Effectiveness: A Meta-analysis of Contingency Model Performance Predictions,” Journal of Applied Psychology, 79(4): 561-573. Seibert, S.E., Kraimer, M.L., and Liden, R.C. (2001). “A Social Capital Theory of Career Success,” Academy of Management Journal, 44(2): 219-237. doi: 10.2307/3069452 Settoon, R.P., Bennett, N., and Liden, R.C. (1996). “Social Exchange in Organizations: The Differential Effects of Perceived Organizational Support and Leader-member Exchange,” Journal of Applied Psychology, 81: 219-227. Shore, L.M., Barksdale, K., and Shore, T.H. (1995). “Managerial Perceptions of Employee Commitment to the Organization,” Academy of Management Journal, 38:1593-604. Şimşek, Z., Heavey, C., and Veiga, J.F. (2010). “The Impact of CEO Core Self Evaluation on the Firm’s Entrepreneurial Orientation,” Strategic Management Journal, 31: 110-119. Sparrowe, R.T. and Liden, R.C. (2005). “Two Routes to Influence: Integrating Leader-member Exchange and Network Perspectives,” Administrative Science Quarterly, 50: 505-535. Spreitzer, G.M., Kizilos, M.A., and Nason, S.W. (1997). “A Dimensional Analysis of the Relationship between Psychological Empowerment and Effectiveness, Satisfaction, and Strain,” Journal of Management, 23: 679-704. Stasser G. and Titus, W. (1985). “Pooling of Unshared Information in Group Decision Making: Biased Information Sampling during Discussion,” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 48: 1467-1478. Tepper, B.J. and Taylor, E.C. (2003). “Relationships among Supervisors’ and Subordinates’ Procedural Justice Perceptions and Organizational Citizenship Behaviors,” Academy of Management Journal, 46(1): 97-105. doi: 10.2307/30040679 Tesluk, P. and Jacobs, R. (1998). “Toward an Integrated Model of Work Experience,” Personnel Psychology, 51: 321-355. Thompson, G. and Vecchio, R.P. (2009). “Situational Leadership Theory: A Test of Three Versions,” The Leadership Quarterly, 20(5): 837-848. doi: 10.1016/j.leaqua.2009.06.014 Tross, S.A. and Maurer, T.J. (2000). “The Relationship between SME Job Experience and JA Ratings: Findings With and Without Statistical Controls,” Journal of Business and Psychology,” 15(1): 97-110. van der Vegt, G.S. and Janssen, O. (2003). “Joint Impact of Interdependence and Group Diversity on Innovation,” Journal of Management, 29(5): 729-752. doi: 10.1016/S0149-2063(03)00033-3 Van Dyne, L. and Ang, S. (1998). “Organizational Citizenship Behavior of Contingent Workers in Singapore,” Academy of Management Journal, 41: 692-703. van Ginkel, W.P. and van Knippenberg, D. (2008). “Group Information Elaboration and Group Decision Making: The Role of Shared Task Representations,” Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 105(1): 82-97. doi: 10.1016/j.obhdp.2007.08.005 van Knippenberg, D. and Schippers, M.C. (2007). “Work Group Diversity,” Annual Review of Psychology, 58(1): 515-541. doi: 10.1146/annurev.psych.58.110405.085546 van Knippenberg, D., De Dreu, C.K.W., and Homan, A.C. (2004). “Work Group Diversity and Group Performance: an Integrative Model and Research Agenda,” Journal of Applied Psychology, 89(6): 1008-1022. doi: 10.1037/0021-9010.89.6.1008 Walton, R.E. (1985). “From Control to Commitment in the Workplace,” Harvard Business Review, March-April: 77-84. Walumbwa, F.O., Wang, P., Lawler, J.J., and Shi, K. (2004). “The Role of Collective Efficacy in the Relations between Transformational Leadership and Work Outcomes,” Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 77(4): 515-530. Ward, E.A. and Davis, E. (1995). “The Effect of Benefit Satisfaction on Organizational Commitment,” Compensation and Benefits Management, 11: 35-40. Whitaker, B.G., Dahling, J.J., and Levy, P. (2007). “The Development of a Feedback Environment and Role Clarity Model of Job Performance,” Journal of Management, 33(4): 570-591. doi: 10.1177/0149206306297581 Wofford, J. and Liska, L.Z. (1993). “Path-goal Theories of Leadership: A Meta-analysis,” Journal of Management, 19(4): 857-876. Wong, Y.T., Ngo, H.Y., and Wong, C.S. (2003). “Antecedents and Outcomes of Employees’ Trust in Chinese Joint Ventures,” Asia Pacific Journal of Management, 20: 481-499. Yukl, G. (1989). “Managerial Leadership: A Review of Theory and Research,” Journal of Management, 15(2): 251-289. ------, (1999). “An Evaluation of Conceptual Weaknesses in Transformational and Charismatic Leadership,” The Leadership Quarterly, 10(2): 285-305. ------, (2006). Leadership in Organizations, 6th ed. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall. Zaccaro, S.J., and Dobbins, G.H. (1989). “Contrasting Group and Organizational Commitment: Evidence for Differences among Multilevel Attachments. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 10: 267-273.

Kaynak Göster