Does Informal Knowledge Sharing Breed Innovation in Industrial Clusters?

Bu çalışma endüstriyel kümelerde sosyal bilgi paylaşımının firmaların yenilikçi performansı üzerine etkisini araştırmaktadır. Sosyal bilgi paylaşımından kastımız, kümelenmenin yarattığı ortak bilgiye istinaden belli bir coğrafi alanda faaliyet gösteren firmalar tarafından dolaysız, kazara ve belli bir amaç güdülmeden adeta otomatik olarak paylaşılan bilgidir. Paylaşılan bilginin ‘sosyal’ doğasını daha iyi yansıtmak adına güvene dayalı bilgi paylaşımı incelenmektedir. Bu anlamda mobilya imalatçıları ve mobilya mağazacıları arasındaki güvene dayalı bilgi paylaşımının bu firmaların yenilikçi performansına etkisi arasında ilişki kurulmuştur. Bunun için hem nitel hem de nicel yöntemler kullanılmıştır. 220 imalatçı ve 137 mağazacı firmadan elde edilen

Endüstriyel Kümelerde Sosyal Bilgi Paylaşımı Yenilikçilik Yaratır mı?

This study investigates the influence of informal knowledge sharing on the innovative performance of individual firms in an industrial cluster. By informal knowledge sharing, we mean to imply the knowledge that is shared automatically, indirectly, accidentally and unknowingly by firms in a geographically bounded area as part of the know-how common to all members in the cluster. To capture this ‘informality.’, we investigate the impact of trust-based knowledge sharing. In this respect, we associate trust-based knowledge sharing between furniture manufacturers and furniture retailers to their in- novative performance. While doing this, we make use of both qualitative and quantitative methods. Data from 220 manufacturers and 137 retailers suggest no association between informal knowledge sharing and innovative performance. We discuss our findings with respect to the interaction between contextual specifics and innovative effectiveness of knowledge sharing. Further, we try to identify those elements in the institutional envi- ronment of the cluster that are unfavorable to the production of innovation.


Adler, P.S. and Kwon, S.W. (2002). “Social Capital: Prospects for a New Concept,” Academy of Management Review, 27(1): 17-40. Amara, N. and Landry, R. (2005). “Sources of Information as Determinants of Novelty of Innovation in Manufacturing Firms: Evidence from the 1999 Statistics Canada Innovation Survey,” Technovation, 25: 245-259. Ankara Kalkınma Ajansı, (2012). Siteler, Mobilya ve Ankara. Appleyard, M.M. (1996). “How does Knowledge Flow? Interfirm Patterns in the Semiconductor Industry,” Strategic Management Journal, 17: 137-154. Arıkan, A. (2009). “Inter-firm Knowledge Exchanges and the Knowledge Creation Capability of Clusters,” 34(4): 658-676. Asheim, B.T. (2002). “Temporary Organizations and Spatial Embedded- ness of Learning and Knowledge Creation,” Geografiska Annaler: Series B Human Geography, 84: 111–124. Asheim, B T. and Coenen, L. (2004). The Role of Regional Innovation Systems in a Globalizing Economy: Comparing Knowledge Bases and Institutional Frameworks of Nordic Clusters. German Institute for Economic Research conference, June 4-5, Berlin. Asheim, B.T., Coenen, L., and Svensson-Henning, M. (2003). “Nordic SMEs and Regional Innovation Systems,” Report prepared for the Nordic Industrial Fund, Center for Innovation and Commercial Development. Audretsch, D. and Feldman, M. (1996). “Knowledge Spillovers and the Geography of Innovation and Production,” American Economic Review, 86(3): 630-640. Baptista, R. and Swann, P. (1998). “Do Clusters Innovate More?” Research Policy, 27: 525-540. Bathelt, H., Malmberg, A., and Maskell, P. (2004). “Clusters and Knowledge: Local Buzz, Global Pipelines and the Process of Knowledge Creation,” Progress in Human Geography, 28: 31-56. Becattini, G. (2004). Industrial Districts: A New Approach to Industrial Change. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing. Bellandi, M. (1989). “The Industrial District in Marshall.” in E.A. Goodman., J. Bamford, and P. Saynor (eds.), Small Firms and Industrial Districts in Italy: 136-152. London: Routledge. Beerepoot, N. (2008). “Diffusion of Knowledge and Skills through Labor Markets: Evidence from the Furniture Cluster in Metro Cebu,” Entrepreneurship and Regional Development, 20:67-88. Berg, B. (1998). Qualitative Research Methods. Boston: Allyn and Bacon. Bönte, W. (2007). “Inter-firm Trust in Buyer-supplier Relations: Are Knowledge Spillovers and Geographical Proximity Relevant?,” Journal of Economic Behavior and Organization, doi: 10.1016/j. jebo.2006.12.004. Brown, S.L. and Eisenhardt, K.M. (1997) “The Art of Continuous Change: Linking Complexity Theory and Time-pased Evolution in Relentlessly Shifting 0rganizations,” Administrative Science Quarterly, 42(1): 1-34. Caloghirou, Y., Kastelli, I., and Tsakanikas, A. (2004). “Internal Capabilities and External Knowledge Sources: Complements or Substitutes for Innovative Performance,” Technovation, 24: 29-39. Coffey, A. and Atkinson, P. (1996). Making Sense of Qualitative Data: Complementary Research Strategies. Thousand Oaks: Sage. Cooke M., Gomez, U., and Etxebarria, G. (1997). “Regional Systems of Innovation: Institutional and Organizational Dimensions,” Research Policy, 26: 474-491. Damanpour, F. (1996). “Organizational Complexity and Innovation: Developing and Testing Multiple Contingency Models,” Management Science, 42(5): 693-716. Dei Ottati, G. (1994). “Trust, Interlinking Transactions and Credit in the Industrial District,” Cambridge Journal of Economics, 18: 529-546. ------, (2003). “Trust, Interlinking Transactions and Credit in the Industrial District,” in M. Becattini., G. Dei Ottai, and F. Sforzi (eds.), From Industrial Districts to Local Development: 108-130. UK: Edward Elgar. Dyer, J.H. and Singh. H. (1998). “The Relational View: Cooperative Strategy and Sources of Inter- organizational Competitive Advantage,” Academy of Management Review, 23: 660-679. Economist, (2013). “How Science goes Wrong?” October 19. Eraydın, A. and Armatlı-Köroğlu, B. (2005). “Innovation, Networking and the New Industrial Clusters: The Characteristics of Networks and Local Innovation Capabilities in the Turkish Industrial Clusters,” Entrepreneurship and Regional Development, 17: 237-266. Fornell, C. and Larcker, D.F. (1981). “Evaluating Structural Equation Models with Unobservable Variables and Measurement Error,” Journal of Marketing Research, 18(1): 39-50. Frost, T.S. (2001). “The Geographic Sources of Foreign Subsidiaries’ Innovations,” Strategic Management Journal, 22: 101-123. Ganesan, S. (1994). “Determinants of Long-term Orientation in Buyer-seller Relationships,” Journal of Marketing, 58: 1-19. Geenhuizen, M. and Indarti, N. (2006). “Knowledge and Innovation in the Indonesian Artisanal Furniture Industry,” 46th Congress of the European Regional Science Association (ERSA 2006), Volos, Greece, 30th August-3rd September. Gellynck, X., Vermeire, B., and Viaene, J. (2007).” Innovation in Food Firms: Contribution of Regional Networks within the International Business Context,” Entrepreneurship and Regional Development, 19: 209-226. Gilbert, B.A., McDougall, P.P., and Audretsch, D.B., (2008). “Clusters, Knowledge Spillovers and New Venture Performance: An Empirical Examination,” Journal of Business Venturing, 23: 405-422. Hair, J.F., Anderson, R.E., Tatham, R.L., and Black, W.C. (1995). Multivariate Data Analysis with Readings. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall. Hansen, M.T. (1999). “The Search Transfer Problem: The Role of Weak Ties in Sharing Knowledge across Organizational Subunits,” Administrative Science Quarterly, 44: 82-111. Herbig, P.A. (1994). The Innovation Matrix: Culture and Structure Prerequisites Innovation. Quorum: Connecticut. Humphrey, J. and Schmitz, H. (2002). “How does Insertion in Global Value Chains Affect Upgrading in Industrial Clusters?,” Regional Studies, 36(9): 1017-1027. Ibrahim, S. and Fallah. M.H. (2005). “Drivers of Innovation and Influence of Technological Clusters,” Engineering Management Journal, 17(3): 33-41. Isaksen, A. (2001). “Building Regional Innovation Systems: Is Endogenous Industrial Development Possible in the Global Economy?,” Canadian Journal of Regional Science, 24(1): 101-120. Jaffe, A.B., Trajtenberg, M., and Henderson, R. (1993). “Geographic Localization of Knowledge Spillovers as Evidenced by Patent Citations.” The Quarterly Journal of Economics, August: 577-598. Jap, S.D. and Ganesan, S. (2000). “Control Mechanisms and the Relationship Life Cycle: Implications for Safeguarding Specific Investments and Developing Commitment,” Journal of Marketing Research, 37: 227-245. Kale, P., Singh, H., and Perlmutter, H. (2000). “Learning and Protection of Proprietary Assets in Strategic Alliances: Building Relational Capital,” Strategic Management Journal, 21: 217-237. Keeble, D. and Wilkinson, F. (1998). “Collective Learning and Knowledge Development in the Evolution of Regional Clusters of High Technology SMEs in Europe,” Regional Studies, 33: 295-303. Khan, M. and Manopichetwattana, V. (1989). “Innovative and Non-innovative Small Firms: Types and Characteristics,” Management Science, 35(5): 597-606. Krackhardt, D. and Hanson, J.R. (1993). “Informal Networks: The Company behind the Charts,” Harvard Business Review, 71: 104-112. Lavie, D. (2006). “The Competitive Advantage of Interconnected Firms: An Extension of the Resource- based View,” Academy of Management Review, 31(3): 638-658. Lawson, C. (1997). “Territorial Clustering and High Technology Innovation: From Industrial Districts to Innovative Milieu” ESRC Centre for Business Research Working Paper 54 University of Cambridge. ------, (1999). “Towards a Competence Theory of the Region. Cambridge Journal of Economics, 23: 151-166. Leonardi, R. (1995). “Regional Development in Italy: Social Capital and the Mezzogiorno,” Oxford Review of Economic Policy, 11(2): 165-179. Lundvall, B.A. (1992). National Systems of Innovation: Towards a Theory of Innovation and Interactive Learning. London: Printer. Marshall, A. (1952). Principles of Economics. London: Macmillian. McAllister, D.J. (1995). “Affect and Cognition Based as Foundations for Interpersonal Cooperation in Organizations. Academy of Management Journal, 38(1): 24-59. McKnight, D.H., Cummings, L.L., and Chervany, N.L. (1998). “Initial Trust Formation in New Organizational Relationships,” Academy of Management Review, 23(3): 473-490. Mesquita, L.F. and Lazzarini, S.G. (2008). “Horizontal and Vertical Relationships in Developing Economies: Implications for SMEs Access to Global Markets. Academy of Management Journal, 51(2): 359-380. Miller, N.J., Besser, T., and Malshe, A. (2007). “Strategic Networking among Small Businesses in Small US Communities,” International Small Business Journal, 25(6): 631-665. Mintzberg, H. (1979). The Structuring of Organizations. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall. Molina-Morales, F.X. and Martnez-Fernandez, M.T. (2006). Industrial Districts: Something More than a Neighborhood. Entrepreneurship and Regional Development,” 18: 503-524. Nahapiet, J. and Ghoshal, S. (1998). “Social Capital, Intellectual Capital, and the Organizational Advantage,” Academy of Management Review, 23(2): 242-266. Nord, W.R. and Tucker. S. (1987). Implementing Routine and Radical Innovation. Lexington. MA: Lexington Books. Oinas, P. (1999). “Activity-specificity in Organizational Learning: Implications for Analyzing the Role of Proximity,” GeoJournal, 49: 363-72. Oslo Manual. (2005). Guidelines for Collecting and Interpreting Innovation Data, 3rd edition. OECD and Eurostrat Publications. Öz, Özlem. (2004). Clusters and Competitive Advantage: The Turkish Experience. London:Routledge. Özen, Ş., Işık, N.E., Uysal, Ö.Ö., Şengün, A. E., Aksoy,B., Çakar, M., and Akış, B. (2007). İş Kültürü ve Örgütler Arası İlişkilerin Örgütsel Performansa Etkileri: Ankara Mobilyacılar Sitesi Örneği. TÜBİTAK, SOBAG: Proje No: 105K168. Pardo, T.A., Cresswell, A.M., Zhang, J., and Thompson. F. (2001). “Interorganizational Knowledge Sharing in Public Sector Innovations,” Academy of Management Proceedings, 3-8 August, Washington D.C. Parker, R. and Tamaschke, L. (2005).” Explaining Regional Departures from National Patterns of Industry Specialization: Regional Institutions, Policies and State Coordination,” Organization Studies, 26(12): 1787-1807. Porter, M. (1998). “Clusters and the New Economics of Competition,” Harvard Business Review, 76(6): 77-90. Rabelotti, R. (1995). “Is There an Industrial District Model? Footwear Districts in Italy and Mexico Compared,” World Development, 23(1), 29-41. Revilla-Diez, J. (2002). “Metropolitan Innovation Systems: A Comparison between Barcelona, Stockholm and Vienna.” International Regional Science Review, 25(1): 63-85. Rosenbloom, R.S. and Christiensen, C.M. (1994). “Technological Discontinuities, Organizational Capabilities, and Strategic Commitments,” Industrial and Corporate Change, 3(3): 655-685. Saxenian, A.L. (1994). Regional Advantage. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. Schmitz, H. (1995). “Collective Efficiency: Growth Path for a Small-scale Industry.” Journal of Development Studies, 31(4): 529-561. ------, (1999). “Collective Efficiency and Increasing Returns,” Cambridge Journal of Economics, 23: 465-483. Schultz, M. and Hatch, M.J. (1996). “Living with Multiple Paradigms: The Case of Paradigm Interplay in Organizational Culture Studies,” Academy of Management Review, 21(2): 529-557. Şengün, A.E. and Wasti, S.N.. (2007). “Trust, Control, and Risk: A Test of Das and Teng’s Conceptual Framework,” Group and Organization Management, 32(4): 430-464. Şengün, A.E. and Önder, Ç. (2009). “Endüstriyel Kümelerde Yenilikçilik: Firma Özellikleri Etkili mi?” Yönetim Araştırmalar Dergisi, 9(1): 5-34. Shah, A.A. (1999). “Measuring Attitudes in Test-alien Cultures: When Illeteracy and Unfamiliarity do not Matter.” Asian Journal of Social Psychology, 2: 245-264. Spencer, J.W. (2003). “Firms’ Knowledge Sharing Strategies in the Global Innovation System: Empirical Evidence from the Flat Panel Display Industry.” Strategic Management Journal, 24: 217-233. Staber, U. (1998). “Inter-firm Co-operation and Competition in Industrial Districts,” Organization Studies, 19(4): 701-724. Storper, M. (1995). “The Resurgence of Regional Economies, Ten Years Later: The Region as a Nexus of Untraded Interdependencies,” European Urban and Regional Studies, 2(3): 191-221. Tabachnick, B.G. and Fidell, L.S. (2001). Using Multivariate Statistics. Boston: Allyn Bacon. Tallman, S., Jenkins, M., Henry, N., and Pinch, S. (2004). “Knowledge, Clusters and Competitive Advantage,” Academy of Management Review, 29(2): 258-271. Tushman, Michael. L. and Romanelli, E. (1985). “Organizational Evolution: A Metamorphosis Model of Convergence and Reorientation,” in L.L. Cummings and B.M. Staw (eds.), Research in Organizational Behavior: 171-222. Greenwich, CT: JAI Press. Visser, E.J. (1999). “A Comparison of Clustered and Dispersed Firms in the Small-scale Clothing Industry of Lima,” World Development, 27(9): 1553-1570. Weerawardena, J. (2003). “Exploring the Role of Market Learning Capability in Competitive Strategy,” European Journal of Marketing, 37(3-4): 407-429. You, J.I. and Wilkinson, F. (1994). “Competition and Cooperation: Toward Understanding Industrial Districts,” Review of Political Economy, 6: 259-278. Zaheer, A., McEvily, B., and Perrone, V. (1998). “Does Trust Matter? Exploring the Effects of Interorganizational and Interpersonal Trust on Performance,” Organization Science, 9: 141-159. Zhou, K Z. and Xu, D. (2012). “How Foreign Firms Curtail Local Supplier Opportunism in China: Detailed Contracts, Centralized Control, and Relational Governance,” Journal of International Business Studies, 43: 677-692.

Kaynak Göster