Effect of three insecticides on tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) seedling germination and early plants growth

Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) is one of the most important vegetables, whose production and consumption increased quite rapidly. The effect of three insecticides (alpha-cypermethrin, chlorpyriphos and pirimicarb) on seed germination and seedling growth of this species has been studied, based on morphological parameters monitored and by using four dilutions of the normal concentration used in agriculture (100%, 75%, 50%, 25%) for germinating seeds, and only the recommended concentration in agriculture for growing plants. The results show that the three insecticides induced a delay of germination and growth process. The germinated rate of seeds treated was lower compared to control, and the length of roots and shoots in treated seeds and plants was reduced.

Kaynakça

Arias-Estevez, M., Lopez-periago, E., Martinez-Carballo, E., Simal-Gandara, J., Mejuto, J.C., Garcia-Riu, L. 2008. The mobility and degradation of pesticides in soils and the pollution of groundwater resources. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment. 123. 247-260.

Bailly, C., Benamar, A., Corbineau, F., Come, D. 1996. Changes in malondialdehyde content and in superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione reductase activities in sunflower seed as related to deterioration during accelerated aging. Physiol. Plant. 97/1. 104-110.

Bewley, J.D., Black, M. 1985. Seeds: Physiology of Development and Germination. Plenum Press, New York.

Borland, A., Elliott, S., Patterson, S. 2006. Are the metabolic components of crassulacean acid metabolism up-regulated in responses to an increase in oxidative burden? Journal of Experimental Botany. 57/2. 319-328.

Bradford, K.J. 1995. Water relations in seed germination, In (Eds.) Kigel, J. and Galili, G., Seed Development and Germination, Marcel Dekker, New York, 351-395.

Del Rio, L.A., Sandalio, L.M., Corpas, F.J., Palma, J.M., Barroso, J.B. 2006. Reactive oxygen species and reactive nitrogen species in peroxisomes. Production, scavenging, and role in cell signaling. Plant Physiology. 141. 330- 335.

Delledome, M., Polverari, A., Murgia, I. 2003. The functions of nitric oxide-mediated signaling and changes in gene expression during the hypersensitive response. Antioxidants and Redox Signaling. 5/1. 33-41.

El Bakouri, H., Aassiri, A., Morillo, J., Usero, J., Khaddor, M., Ouassini, A. 2008. Pesticides and lipids occurrence in Tangier agricultural soil (Northern Morocco). Applied Geochemistry 23. 3487-3497.

Fayez, K.A., Gerken, I., Kristen, U. 1994. Ultrastructural responses of root caps to the herbicides chlorsulfuron and metsulfuron methyl. Plant and Soil. 167/1. 127-134.

Fayez, K.A., Kristen, U. 1996. The influence of herbicides on the growth and proline content of primary roots and on the ultrastructure of root caps. Environmental and Experimental Botany. 36/1. 71-81.

Grun, S., Lindermayr, C., Sell, S. 2006. Nitric oxide and gene regulation in plants. Journal of Experimental Botany. 57/3. 507-516.

Kamath, V., Kumar, A., Joshi, R., Rajini, P.S. 2008. Dimethoate induced biochemical perturbations in rat pancreas and its attenuation by cashew nut skin extract. Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology. 90/1. 58-65.

Kashem, M.A., Sultana, N., Ikeda, T., Hori, H., Loboda, T., Mitsui, T. 2000. Alteration of strach-sucrose transition in germinating wheat seed under sodium chloride salinity. J. Plant Biol. 43. 121-127.

Khatun, S., Babar Ali, M., Hahn, E.J., Paek, K.Y. 2008. Copper toxicity in Withania somnifera: Growth and antioxidant enzymes responses of in vitro grown plants. Environmental and Experimental Botany. 64. 279-285.

Li, C.X., Feng, S.L., Shao, Y., Jiang, L.N., Lu, X.Y., Hou, X.L. 2007. Effects of arsenic on seed germination and physiological activities of wheat seedlings. Journal of Environmental Sciences. 19/6. 725-732.

McCarty, D.R., Chory, J. 2000. Conservation and innovation in plant signaling pathways. Cell. 103. 201-209.

Mishra, V., Srivastava, G., Prasad, S.M., Abraham, G. 2008. Growth, photosynthetic pigments and photosynthetic activity during seedling stage of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) in response to UV-B and dimethoate. Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology. 92. 30-37.

Moore, M.T., Huggett, D.B., Huddleston, G.M., Rodgers, J.H., Cooper, C.M. 1999. Herbicide effects on Typha Latifolia (Linneaus) germination and root and shoot development. Chemosphere. 38/15. 3637-3647.

Oerke, E.C., Dehne, D.W., Schonbeck, F., Weber, A. 1994. Crop Production and Crop Protection: Estimated Losses in Major Food and Cash Crops. Elsevier Hardcover, Amsterdam.

Pang, G.F., Fan, C.L., Chao, Y.Z. 1994a. Packed-column gas chromatographic method for the simultaneous determination of 10 pyrethroid insecticide residues in fruits, vegetables, and grains. J AOAC Int. 77/3. 738-47.

Pang, G.F., Fan, C.L., Chao, Y.Z., Zhao, T.S. 1994b. Rapid method for the determination of multiple pyrethroid residues in fruits and vegetables by capillary column gas chromatography. J Chromatogr A. 667/1-2. 348-53.

Ravikumar, R., Ananthakrishnan, G., Girija, S., Gamapathi, A. 2002. Seed viability and biochemical changes associated with accelerated ageing in Dendro calamus strictus seeds. Biol. Plant. 45/1. 153-156.

Schurmann, P. 2003. Redox signaling in the chloroplast: the ferredoxin/ thioredoxin system. Antioxidants Redox Signaling. 5/1. 69-78.

Shao, H.B., Chen, X.Y., Chu, L.Y., Zhao, X.N., Wu, G., Yuan, Y.B., Zhao, C.X., Hu, Z.M. 2006. Investigation on the relationship of Proline with wheat anti-drought under soil water deficits. Biointerfaces. 53/2. 113-119.

Shao, H.B., Chu, L.Y., Cheruth, A.J., Zhao, C.X. 2008. Water-deficit ,stress-induced anatomical changes in higher plants. Comptes Rendus de Biologies. 331. 215-225.

Terman, A., Brunk, U.T. 2006. Oxidative stress, accumulation of biological ‘Garbage’, and aging. Antioxidants Redox Signaling. 8/1-2. 197-204.

Wang, Y.S., Wang, J., Yang, Z.M., Lu, B., Wang, Q.Y., Li, S.Q., Lu, Y.P., Wang, S.H., Sun, X. 2004. Salicylic acid modulates aluminium induced oxidative stress in roots of Cassia tora L. Acta Bot. Sin. 46. 819-828.

Wang, Y.S., Yang, Z.M. 2005. Nitric oxide reduces aluminum toxicity by preventing oxidative stress in the roots of Cassia tora L. Plant Cell Physiol. 46/12. 1915-1923.

Welbaum, G.E., Bradford, K.J., Kyu-ock, Y., Booth, D.T., Oluoch, M.O. 1998. Biophysical, physiological and biochemical processes regulating seed germination. Seed Sci. Res. 8/2. 161-172.

World Health Organization. 1986. Carbamate pesticides: A general introduction. Environmental health criteria. 64.

Yang, H., Wong, J.W.C., Yang, Z.M., Zhou, L.X. 2001. The ability of Agrogyron elongatum to accumulate the single metal of cadmium, copper, nickel and lead and root exudation of organic acids. J Environ Sci. 13/3. 368-75.

Ye, F., Xie, Z., Wu, X., Lin, X. 2006. Determination of pyrethroid pesticide residues in vegetables by pressurized capillary electrochromatography. Talanta. 69. 97-102.

Yücel E, Hatðpoglu A, Sözen E, Güner ST (2008). The effects of the lead (PbCl) on mitotic cell division of Anatolian Black Pine (Pinus nigra ssp. pallasiana). Biological Diversity and Conservation. 1/2. 124-129.

Kaynak Göster