Genç Yetişkinlerde Mükemmeliyetçilik ve Beden Algısının Ortoreksiyaya Etkisi

Bu araştırmada, mükemmeliyetçilik ve beden algısının Ortoreksiya Nervoza’ya etkisini incelemek amaçlanmıştır. Bu amaç doğrultusunda 81 üniversite öğrenci katılımcısı ile araştırma yürütülmüştür. Katılımcılara ORTO-11 Ölçeği, Olumlu ve Olumsuz Mükemmeliyetçilik Ölçeği ve Beden Memnuniyeti Ölçeği uygulanmıştır. Elde edilen sonuçlara göre; araştırmaya katılan kişilerin %51,25’inin kadın, %48,75’inin ise erkek ve yaş ortalamasının 20,96 olduğu saptanmıştır. Mükemmeliyetçilik ve beden algısı puanlarının Ortoreksiya Nervoza’yı (ON) yordamadığı görülmektedir (βmükemmeliyetçilik=-0,104, βbedenalgısı=-0,081, R2=0,015, p>0,05). Bununla birlikte cinsiyet ve eğitim görülen bölüme göre, ON puanlarının farklılaşmadığı görülmektedir. Literatür ışığında bu bulgular tartışılmış, araştırma ile ilgili sınırlılıklara yer verilmiş ve gelecek araştırmacılar için önerilerde bulunulmuştur. Özellikle ON’nin beden algısı ile ilişkisine dair yapılacak araştırmalara duyulan ihtiyacın önemi vurgulanmıştır.

The Effect of Perfectionism and Body Perception on Orthorexia Among Young Adults

The purpose of the research is to investigate, perfectionism and body perception’s effects on orthorexia nervosa (ON). According to this, the research is conducted by 81 college students. ORTO-11, Positive and Negative Perfectionism Scale, Body Appreciation Scale were applied. The results obtained, the scores of perfectionism and body perception weren’t predicted orthorexia nervosa. In addition to this, there were no statistically significant differences ON scores and gender. Also, there were any significant differences between ON scores and departments. These findings were discussed in the light of the related literature and the limitations of the research were given and suggestions were made for future researchers. Especially, it was emphasized how important and needed the research which works on the relation between ON and body perception.

Kaynakça

Acar-Tek, N., & Karaçil-Ermumcu, M. Ş. (2016). Sağlık profesyonellerinde sağlıklı beslenme kaygısı: Ortoreksiya Nervoza. Gazi Üniversitesi Sağlık Bilimleri Dergisi, 1(2), 59-71. https:// doi.org/10.22312/sdusbed.514506

Aksoydan, E., & Camcı, N. (2009). Prevalence of orthorexia nervosa among Turkish performance artists. Eating and Weight Disorders- Studies on Anorexia, Bulimia and Obesity, 14(1), 33-37. https:// doi.org/10.1007/bf03327792

Arhire, L. I. (2015). Orthorexia Nervoza: The unhealthy obsession for healthy food. Medical-Surgical Journal - Revista Medico Chırurgicala, 119(3), 632-638.

Arusoğlu, G., Kabakçı, E., Köksal, G., & Merdol, T. K. (2008). Ortoreksiya Nervoza ve Orto-11’in Türkçeye uyarlama çalışması. Türk Psikiyatri Dergisi, 19(3), 283-291. http://www. turkpsikiyatri.com/C19S3/283-291.pdf

Asil, E., & Sürücüoğlu, M. S. (2015). Orthorexia nervosa in Turkish dietitians. Ecology of Food and Nutrition, 54(4), 303-313. https://doi.org/10.1080/03670244.2014.987920

Avalos, L., Tylka, T. L., & Wood-Barcalow, N. (2005). The body appreciation scale: Development and psychometric evaluation. Body Image, 2(3), 285-297. https://doi.org/10.1016/j. bodyim.2005.06.002

Bakalım, O. & Taşdelen-Karçkay, A. (2016). Body Appreciation Scale: Evaluation of the factor structure and psychometric properties among male and female Turkish university students. Mersin Üniversitesi Eğitim Fakültesi Dergisi, 12(1), 410-422. https://doi. org/10.17860/efd.38032

Bardone-Cone, A. M., Wonderlich, S. A., Frost, R. O., Bulik, C. M., Mitchell, J. E., Uppala, S., & Simonich, H. (2007). Perfectionism and eating disorders: Current status and future directions. Clinical Psychology Review, 27(3), 384-405. https://doi.org/10.1016/j. cpr.2006.12.005

Barnes, M. A. & Caltabiano, M. L. (2017). The interrelationship between orthorexia nervosa, perfectionism, body image and attachment style. Eating and Weight Disorders-Studies on Anorexia, Bulimia and Obesity, 22(1), 177-184. https://doi. org/10.1007/s40519-016-0280-x

Barthels, F., Meyer, F., & Pietrowsky, R. (2015) Orthorexic eating behavior. A new type of disordered eating. Ernaehrungs Umschau International, 62(10), 156-161. https://www. ernaehrungs-umschau.de/fileadmin/Ernaehrungs-Umschau/pdfs/ pdf_2015/10_15/EU10_2015_WuF_Barthels_Eng.pdf

Bosi, A. T. B., Çamur, D., & Güler, Ç. (2007). Prevalence of orthorexia nervosa in resident medical doctors in the faculty of medicine (Ankara, Turkey). Appetite, 49(3), 661-666. https://doi. org/10.1016/j.appet.2007.04.007

Brown, A. J., Parman, K. M., Rudat, D. A., & Craighead, L. W. (2012). Disordered eating, perfectionism, and food rules. Eating Behaviors, 13(4), 347-353. https://doi.org/10.1016/j. eatbeh.2012.05.011

Brytek-Matera, A. (2012). Orthorexia nervosa –an eating disorder, obsessive compulsive disorder or disturbed eating habit. Archives of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, 1(1), 55-60. https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/c166/ ed330d58c7fb088391cd90bb7e63918b89d9.pdf

Brytek-Matera, A., Donini, L. M., Krupa, M., Poggiogalle, E., & Hay, P. (2015). Orthorexia nervosa and self-attitudinal aspects of body image in female and male university students. Journal of Eating Disorders, 3(1), 1-8. https://doi.org/10.1186/s40337-015-0038-2

Brytek-Matera, A., Fonte, M. L., Poggiogalle, E., Donini, L. M., & Cena, H. (2017). Orthorexia nervosa: relationship with obsessivecompulsive symptoms, disordered eating patterns and body uneasiness among Italian university students. Eating and Weight Disorders-Studies on Anorexia, Bulimia and Obesity, 22(4), 609- 617. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40519-017-0427-4

Brytek-Matera, A., Gramaglia, C., Gambaro, E., Delicato, C., & Zeppegno, P. (2018). The psychopathology of body image in orthorexia nervosa. Journal of Psychopathology, 24, 133-140.

Brytek-Matera, A., Krupa, M., Poggiogalle, E., & Donini, L. M. (2014). Adaptation of the ORTHO-15 test to Polish women and men. Eating and Weight Disorders-Studies on Anorexia, Bulimia and Obesity, 19(1), 69-76. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40519-014-0100-0

Bundros, J., Clifford, D., Silliman, K., & Morris, M. N. (2016). Prevalence of Orthorexia nervosa among college students based on Bratman’s test and associated tendencies. Appetite, 101, 86-94. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.appet.2016.02.144 Büyüköztürk, Ş., Kılıç Çakmak, E., Akgün, Ö. E., Karadeniz, Ş. ve

Demirel, F. (2012). Bilimsel Araştırma Yöntemleri (21. baskı). Ankara: Pegem Akademi.

Chaki, B., Pal, S., & Bandyopadhyay, A. (2013). Exploring scientific legitimacy of orthorexia nervosa: a newly emerging eating disorder. Journal of Human Sport & Exercise, 8(4), 1045-1053. https:// doi.org/10.4100/jhse.2013.84.14

Çiçekoğlu, P. and Tunçay, G. Y. (2017). A Comparison of Eating Attitudes Between Vegans/Vegetarians and Nonvegans/Nonvegetarians in terms of Orthorexia Nervosa. Archives of Psychiatric Nursing, 32(2), 200-205. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.apnu.2017.11.002

del Mar Bibiloni, M., Coll, J. L., Pich, J., Pons, A., & Tur, J. A. (2017). Body image satisfaction and weight concerns among a Mediterranean adult population. BMC Public Health, 17(1), 39. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12889-016-3919-7

Derenne, J., & Beresin, E. (2018). Body Image, Media, and Eating Disorders—a 10-Year Update. Academic Psychiatry, 42(1), 129- 134. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40596-017-0832-z

Dittfeld, A., Gwizdek, K., Jagielski, P., Brzęk, A., & Ziora, K. (2017). A study on the relationship between orthorexia and vegetarianism using the BOT (Bratman Test for Orthorexia). Psychiatr Pol, 51(6), 1133-1144. https://doi.org/10.12740/pp/75739

Donini, L. M., Marsili, D., Graziani, M. P., Imbriale, M., & Cannella, C. (2004). Orthorexia nervosa: a preliminary study with a proposal for diagnosis and an attempt to measure the dimension of the phenomenon. Eating and Weight Disorders-Studies on Anorexia, Bulimia and Obesity, 9(2), 151-157. https://doi.org/10.1007/ bf03325060

Donini, L. M., Marsili, D., Graziani, M. P., Imbriale, M., & Cannella, C. (2005). Orthorexia nervosa: validation of a diagnosis questionnaire. Eating and Weight Disorders-Studies on Anorexia, Bulimia and Obesity, 10(2), e28-e32. https://doi.org/10.1007/bf03327537

Dunn, T. M., & Bratman, S. (2016). On orthorexia nervosa: A review of the literature and proposed diagnostic criteria. Eating Behaviors, 21, 11-17. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.eatbeh.2015.12.006

Duran, S. (2016). Sağlık Yüksekokulu öğrencilerinde Ortoreksiya Nervoza (sağlıklı beslenme takıntısı) riski ve etkileyen faktörler. Pamukkale Tıp Dergisi (Pamukkale Medical Journal), 9(3), 220- 226. https://doi.org/10.5505/ptd.2016.03880

Eriksson, L., Baigi, A., Marklund, B., & Lindgren, E. C. (2008). Social physique anxiety and sociocultural attitudes toward appearance impact on orthorexia test in fitness participants. Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports, 18(3), 389-394. https:// doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-0838.2007.00723.x

Featherstone, M. (1991). The body in consumer culture. In: Featherstone, M., Hepworth, M., & Turner, B. S. (Ed.) The Body: Social Process and Cultural Theory London: Sage Publications, 390-391.

Fidan, T., Ertekin, V., Işikay, S., & Kırpınar, I. (2010). Prevalence of orthorexia among medical students in Erzurum, Turkey. Comprehensive Psychiatry, 51(1), 49-54. https://doi. org/10.1016/j.comppsych.2009.03.001

Freeman, R. J., Beach, B., Davis, R., & Solyom, L. (1985). The prediction of relapse in bulimia nervosa. Journal of Psychiaticr Research, 19(2/3), 349-353. https://doi.org/10.1016/0022- 3956(85)90039-1

Gezer, C., & Kabaran, S. (2013). Beslenme ve diyetetik bölümü kız öğrencileri arasında görülen ortoreksiya nervosa riski. SDU Journal of Health Science Institute/SDÜ Saglik Bilimleri Enstitüsü Dergisi, 4(1), 14-22. https://dergipark.org.tr/tr/download/articlefile/ 196004

Gönenir-Erbay, L., & Seçkin, Y. (2016). Yeme bozuklukları. Güncel Gastroenteroloji 20(4), 473-477. http://guncel.tgv.org.tr/ journal/68/pdf/100509.pdf

Hayles, O., Wu, M. S., De Nadai, A. S., & Storch, E. A. (2017). Orthorexia nervosa: an examination of the prevalence, correlates, and associated impairment in a university sample. Journal of Cognitive Psychotherapy, 31(2), 124-135. https://doi. org/10.1891/0889-8391.31.2.124

Keel, P. K., Dorer, D. J., Franko, D. L., Jackson, S. C., & Herzog, D. B. (2005). Postremission predictors of relapse in women with eating disorders. American Journal of Psychiatry, 162(12), 2263-2268. https://doi.org/10.1176/appi.ajp.162.12.2263

Koven, N. S., & Abry, A. W. (2015). The clinical basis of orthorexia nervosa: Emerging perspectives. Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment, 11(1), 385-394. https://doi.org/10.2147/NDT. S61665

Koven, N. S., & Senbonmatsu, R. (2013). A neuropsychological evaluation of orthorexia nervosa. Open Journal of Psychiatry, 3(2), 214-222. https://doi.org/10.4236/ojpsych.2013.32019

Mathieu, J. (2005). What is orthorexia? Journal of American Dietetic Association, 105(10), 1510–1512. https://doi.org/10.1016/j. jada.2005.08.021

McInerney-Ernst, E. M. (2011). Orthorexia Nervosa: Real construct or Newest Social Trend? (Doctoral dissertation, University of Missouri--Kansas City).

Michalska, A., Szejko, N., Jakubczyk, A., & Wojnar, M. (2016). Nonspecific eating disorders-a subjective review. Psychiatria Polska, 50(3), 497-507. https://doi.org/10.12740/pp/59217

Moroze, R. M., Dunn, T. M., Holland, J. C., Yager, J., & Weintraub, P. (2015). Microthinking about micronutrients: a case of transition from obsessions about healthy eating to near-fatal “orthorexia nervosa” and proposed diagnostic criteria. Psychosomatics, 56(4), 397-403. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psym.2014.03.003

Oberle, C. D., Samaghabadi, R. O., & Hughes, E. M. (2017). Orthorexia nervosa: Assessment and correlates with gender, BMI, and personality. Appetite, 108, 303-310. https://doi. org/10.1016/j.appet.2016.10.021

Ramacciotti, C. E., Perrone, P., Coli, E., Burgalassi, A., Conversano, C., Massimetti, G., & Dell’Osso, L. (2011). Orthorexia nervosa in the general population: a preliminary screening using a selfadministered questionnaire (ORTO-15). Eating and Weight Disorders-Studies on Anorexia, Bulimia and Obesity, 16(2), e127-e130. https://doi.org/10.1007/bf03325318

Segura-Garcia, C., Ramacciotti, C., Rania, M., Aloi, M., Caroleo, M., Bruni, A., ..., De Fazio, P. (2015). The prevalence of orthorexia nervosa among eating disorder patients after treatment. Eating and Weight Disorders-Studies on Anorexia, Bulimia and Obesity, 20(2), 161-166. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40519-014-0171-y

Serback, M. O. (2018). Prevalence of orthorexia nervosa tendencies in US didactic program in dietetics students. https://surface.syr.edu/ cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1234&context=thesis

Strand, E. (2004). A new eating disorders. Psychology Today, 16. https://www.psychologytoday.com/us/articles/200409/ orthorexia-too-healthy

Swami, V., Özgen, L., Gökçen, E., & Petrides, K. V. (2015). Body image among female university students in Turkey: concurrent translation and validation of three body image measures. International Journal of Culture and Mental Health, 8(2), 176- 191. https://doi.org/10.1080/17542863.2014.917117

Şanlıer, N., Yassıbaş, E., Bilici, S., Şahin, G., & Çelik, B. (2016). Does the rise in eating disorders lead to increasing risk of orthorexia nervosa? Correlations with gender, education, and body mass index. Ecology of Food and Nutrition, 55(3), 266-278. https:// doi.org/10.1080/03670244.2016.1150276

Terry-Short, L. A., Owens, R. G., Slade, P. D., & Dewey, M. E. (1995). Positive and negative perfectionism. Personality and Individual Differences, 18(5), 663-668. https://doi.org/10.1016/0191- 8869(94)00192-U

Tok, S., Tatar, A. ve Moralı, S. (2007). Olumlu ve olumsuz mükemmeliyetçilik ölçeğinin Türkçe konuşan sporcu örnekleme uyarlanması. Performans Dergisi, 13(1-2), 49-57.

Tremelling, K., Sandon, L., Vega, G. L., & McAdams, C. J. (2017). Orthorexia nervosa and eating disorder symptoms in registered dietitian nutritionists in the United States. Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics, 117(10), 1612-1617. https://doi. org/10.1016/j.jand.2017.05.001

Varga, M., & Mate, G. (2010). Eating disturbances in orthorexia nervosa. In: XIII annual meeting of the European Association for Consultation-Liaison Psychiatry and Psychosomatics (EACLPP) XXVIII European Conference on Psychosomatic Research (ECPR): a selection of the best abstracts submitted. Journal of Psychosomatic Research 68:672–673.

Varga, M., Dukay-Szabó, S., Túry, F., & van Furth Eric, F. (2013). Evidence and gaps in the literature on orthorexia nervosa. Eating and Weight Disorders-Studies on Anorexia, Bulimia and Obesity, 18(2), 103-111. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40519-013-0026-y

Varga, M., Thege, B. K., Dukay-Szabó, S., Túry, F., & van Furth, E. F. (2014). When eating healthy is not healthy: orthorexia nervosa and its measurement with the ORTO-15 in Hungary. BMC Psychiatry, 14(1), 59. https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-244x-14-59

Yardım, N., Karakaş, B., & Çarkcı, M. (2016). Sağlıklı beslenme ve fiziksel aktivite öğretmen el kitabı. Ankara: T.C. Sağlık Bakanlığı Türkiye Halk Sağlığı Kurumu. http://karayazi.meb.gov.tr/meb_ iys_dosyalar/2016_10/06093505_saglikli_beslenme_ve_fiziksel_ aktivite_ogretmen_el_kitabi.pdf

Kaynak Göster