TRUSTS IN THE U.S.

As a type of ownership and a management regime of assets, A “Trust” creates a triangular relationship among the settlor, the trustee, and the beneficiary. Once, settlor establishes the trust, the trustee and the beneficiary have concurrent rights over the same trust property. Inherently, trusts make transfer of prosperity and wealth manage-ment conveniently due to their extremely flexible natures with lack of legal personality, the structure of segregated fund, trace remedy, and tax-saving. Vertically and horizontally, trusts are both durable and stable from the perspectives of current and successor beneficiaries of the trust funds. Even though trusts are distinctive instruments of Anglo-American Law, there are also trust-like institutions in Roman, German, and Islamic Law-Fiducia, Salman (Treuhand), and Waqf. Moreover, the Continental Europeans achieve mostly by means of contract what the Anglo-American systems do through trust. In case law of civil law, the trust has been considered as a bilateral contract, mixed contract, or fidei-commissum. Most recently, the Hague Convention initiated an international quasi-consensus on the applications and recog-nition of Anglo-American trusts and trust-like institutions in other juris-dictions. Trust is an extremely flexible legal device in the century of mate-rial wealth and its management that settlors enjoy how to conduct their fortunes for almost a perpetuity period, beneficiaries reach the benefits of the inducements without having the drawbacks and responsibilities of having title to trust properties, and trustees-particularly corporate fiduci-aries fueled by fees and commissions due to their trust services, which cause relationship-oriented and long-term oriented client base and thus, generate consistent revenues for financial institutions. Moreover, trust is a multi-purpose tool to prevent fiscal disputes between heirs and divorced spouses in addition to its potential to execute the assets occurred after long-period efforts of work ethics without being distributed into inefficient parts in the case of inheritance or solvency of a business. Finally, as any tool may be used, trusts may be also used for illegal purposes like committing fraud, hiding properties from creditors, and evading taxes in the cases of sham trusts and abusive trusts.

ABD’DE TRÖSTLER

Mülkiyet türü ve varlıkların yönetim rejimi olarak, “Trust kuru-mu”, kurucu sahip, trust acentesi ve faydalanan arasında üçgen bir ilişki yaratır. Bir kez, kurucu trust kurumunu kurar, trust acentesi ve faydala-nan aynı trust mülkiyeti üzerinde eşzamanlı haklara sahiptir. Doğal ola-rak, trust kurumları, tüzel kişiliğe sahip olmamaları, ayrılan fonun yapı-sı ve vergi tasarrufuyla son derece esnek tabiatlarından dolayı refah ve servet yönetimini rahatlıkla devretmektedirler. Dikey ve yatay olarak, trust fonlarının mevcut ve halefleri faydalanıcılarının bakış açılarından trust kurumları hem dayanıklı hem de istikrarlıdır. Trust kurumu, Anglo-Amerikan Hukukunun ayırt edici araçları olmasına rağmen, Roma Hukukunda (Fiducia), Alman Hukukunda Sal-man (Treuhand) ve İslam Hukukunda (Vakıf) da trust benzeri kurumlar-dır. Dahası, Kıta Avrupası çoğunlukla Anglo-Amerikan sistemlerinin inanca dayalı yaptıklarını sözleşme yoluyla elde ederler. Medeni hukuk durumunda, trust bir ikili sözleşme, karma sözleşme veya fidei-komisyon olarak kabul edilmiştir. Son zamanlarda, Lahey Sözleşmesi, Anglo-Amerikan trust kurumunun ve trust benzeri kurumların diğer ülkelerdeki uygulamaları ve tanınması konusunda uluslararası bir fikir birliği başlattı. Trust kurumu, maddi zenginlik yüzyılındaki son derece esnek bir yasal araçtır ve kurucuların neredeyse kalıcı bir süre boyunca servetle-rini nasıl gerçekleştireceklerini zevkle karşılayan yönetimi, faydalananların, mülk sahiplerinin trust mülküne sahip olma dezavantajları ve so-rumlulukları olmadan, teşviklerin faydalarına ulaşması, ve trust acente-si, özellikle de, trust odaklı olmaları nedeniyle ücret ve komisyonlar ta-rafından beslenen, ilişki odaklı ve uzun vadeli müşteri tabanına neden olan ve böylece finansal kurumlar için tutarlı gelirler sağlayan şirket güvenceleridir. Ayrıca, trust kurumu, mirasçıların ve boşanmış eşlerin arasındaki mali uyuşmazlıkları, uzun süren iş etiği çabalarının miras veya ödenek durumunda verimsiz kısımlara dağıtılmadan verimsiz parçalara dağıtıl-madan gerçekleştirme potansiyeline ek olarak kullanma potansiyelinin yanı sıra, çok amaçlı bir araçtır; bir iş. Son olarak, herhangi bir araç kullanılabildiğinden, trust kurumları, sahtekarlık yapmak, alacaklılardan mülkleri gizlemek ve sahte trust kurumları ve kötü niyetli trust kurumları durumunda vergi kaçırmak gibi yasadışı amaçlarla da kullanılabilir.

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