Short- and long-term variations, spatial analysis along with cancer health risk assessment associated with 1, 3-butadiene

In this study, spatial analysis and chronic cancer risk of ambient values of 1, 3-butadiene (BD) were investigated in the eastern USA. In addition, the temporal variation of BD was assessed in Beaumont, Texas. Both spatial and temporal analyses indicated that in addition to traffic emissions, some other sources such as forest fires and industrial activities may contribute locally to the release of BD in the atmosphere. A combined method of TBATS and Prophet was utilized for the first time for multi-seasonal decomposition of BD between 2014 and 2018 along with time series forecasting indicating the existence of an annual seasonality in daily values of BD. The time series forecasting by Prophet proved that the trend of BD is expected to decrease from 2019 to 2021 with higher values in the cold seasons in comparison with the summertime. Based on the findings of both deterministic and probabilistic health risk assessment (PRA), the children were exposed to a higher risk due to inhalation of BD. For instance, regarding PRA, the respective median, mean and maximum risk values for the children were 6.72 × 10−6 , 3.17 × 10−5 and 4.24 × 10−3 , respectively demonstrating that the true risk may be higher if the uncertainty in the input parameters is taken into account. Meanwhile, with respect to the findings for the children, 42.40% of the local residents were exposed to a higher acceptable risk level of 1 × 10−5 while only 6.84% are exposed to an immediate risk greater than the threshold level of 1 × 10−4 .


Aitchison, J., 1955. On the distribution of a positive random variable having a discrete probability mass at the origin. J. Am. Stat. Assoc. 50, 901–908.

Arayasiri, M., Mahidol, C., Navasumrit, P., Autrup, H., Ruchirawat, M., 2010. Biomonitoring of benzene and 1, 3-butadiene exposure and early biological effects in traffic policemen. Sci. Total Environ. 408, 4855–4862.

Atkins, D., Lee, D.S., 1995. Spatial and temporal variation of rural nitrogen dioxide concentrations across the United Kingdom. Atmos. Environ. 29, 223–239.

Bari, M.A., Kindzierski, W.B., 2017. Concentrations, sources and human health risk of inhalation exposure to air toxics in Edmonton, Canada. Chemosphere 173, 160–171.

Bogunovic, I., Pereira, P., Brevik, E.C., 2017. Spatial distribution of soil chemical properties in an organic farm in Croatia. Sci. Total Environ. 584, 535–545.

CEPA, 2000. Priority Substances List Assessment Report: 1,3-Butadiene. Government of Canada, Environment Canada, Health Canada Cat. No. En 40-215/52E.

Chen, W.-H., Chen, Z.-B., Yuan, C.-S., Hung, C.-H., Ning, S.-K., 2016. Investigating the differences between receptor and dispersion modeling for concentration prediction and health risk assessment of volatile organic compounds from petrochemical industrial complexes. J. Environ. Manag. 166, 440–449.

Costagliola, M.A., Murena, F., Prati, M.V., 2014. Exhaust emissions of volatile organic compounds of powered two-wheelers: effect of cold start and vehicle speed. Contribution to greenhouse effect and tropospheric ozone formation. Sci. Total Environ. 468, 1043–1049.

Curren, K.C., Dann, T.F., Wang, D.K., 2006. Ambient air 1, 3-butadiene concentrations in Canada (1995–2003): seasonal, day of week variations, trends, and source influences. Atmos. Environ. 40, 170–181.

Czader, B.H., Rappenglück, B., 2015. Modeling of 1, 3-butadiene in urban and industrial areas. Atmos. Environ. 102, 30–42.

De Livera, A.M., Hyndman, R.J., Snyder, R.D., 2011. Forecasting time series with complex seasonal patterns using exponential smoothing. J. Am. Stat. Assoc. 106, 1513–1527.

Delzell, E., Sathiakumar, N., Hovinga, M., Macaluso, M., Julian, J., Larson, R., Cole, P., Muir, D.C., 1996. A follow-up study of synthetic rubber workers. Toxicology 113, 182–189.

Demirel, G., Özden, Ö., Döğeroğlu, T., Gaga, E.O., 2014. Personal exposure of primary school children to BTEX, NO2 and ozone in Eskişehir, Turkey: relationship with indoor/outdoor concentrations and risk assessment. Sci. Total Environ. 473, 537–548.

Dhaini, H.R., Salameh, T., Waked, A., Sauvage, S., Borbon, A., Formenti, P., Doussin, J.-F., Locoge, N., Afif, C., 2017. Quantitative cancer risk assessment and local mortality burden for ambient air pollution in an eastern Mediterranean City. Environ. Sci. Pollut. Control Ser. 24, 14151–14162.

Dollard, G., Dore, C., Jenkin, M., 2001. Ambient concentrations of 1, 3-butadiene in the UK. Chem. Biol. Interact. 135, 177–206.

Du, Z., Mo, J., Zhang, Y., 2014. Risk assessment of population inhalation exposure to volatile organic compounds and carbonyls in urban China. Environ. Int. 73, 33–45.

Gibbons, R.D., Bhaumik, D., Aryal, S., 2009. Statistical Methods for Groundwater Monitoring. Wiley Online Library.

Grant, R.L., Leopold, V., McCant, D., Honeycutt, M., 2007. Spatial and temporal trend evaluation of ambient concentrations of 1, 3-butadiene and chloroprene in Texas.Chem. Biol. Interact. 166, 44–51.

Grant, R.L., Haney, J., Curry, A.L., Honeycutt, M., 2009. Development of a unit risk factor for 1, 3‐butadiene based on an updated carcinogenic toxicity assessment. Risk Anal.: Int. J. 29 (12), 1726–1742.

Guo, H., Lee, S., Chan, L., Li, W., 2004. Risk assessment of exposure to volatile organic compounds in different indoor environments. Environ. Res. 94, 57–66.

Hastie, T., Tibshirani, R., 1987 Jun 1. Generalized additive models: some applications. J. Am. Stat. Assoc. 182 (398), 371–386.

Hendler, A.H., Goodmanson Bunch, A.T., Crow, W.L., 2010. Long-term trends in ambient air 1, 3-butadiene levels in Houston, Texas. Environ. Sci. Technol. 44, 7383–7390.

Hong, S.-H., Shin, D.-C., Lee, Y.-J., Kim, S.-H., Lim, Y.-W., 2017. Health risk assessment of volatile organic compounds in urban areas. Hum. Ecol. Risk Assess. Int. J. 23, 1454–1465.

Huang, Y., Su, T., Wang, L., Wang, N., Xue, Y., Dai, W., Lee, S.C., Cao, J., Ho, S.S.H., 2019. Evaluation and characterization of volatile air toxics indoors in a heavy polluted city of northwestern China in wintertime. Sci. Total Environ. 662, 470–480.

Huy, L.N., Lee, S.C., Zhang, Z., 2018. Human cancer risk estimation for 1, 3-butadiene: an assessment of personal exposure and different microenvironments. Sci. Total Environ. 616, 1599–1611.

Hyndman, R.J., Athanasopoulos, G., 2018. Forecasting: principles and practice. OTexts. IARC, 2008. IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans. The International Agency for Research on Cancer.

Kennedy, C.H., Catallo, W.J., Wilson, V.L., Mitchell, J.B., 2009. Combustion products of 1, 3-butadiene inhibit catalase activity and induce expression of oxidative DNA damage repair enzymes in human bronchial epithelial cells. Cell Biol. Toxicol. 25, 457–470.

Khanchi, A., Hebbern, C.A., Zhu, J., Cakmak, S., 2015. Exposure to volatile organic compounds and associated health risks in windsor. Canada. Atmos. Environ. 120, 152–159.

Kim, H.H., Lim, Y.W., Yang, J.Y., Shin, D.C., Ham, H.S., Choi, B.S., Lee, J.Y., 2013. Health risk assessment of exposure to chlorpyrifos and dichlorvos in children at childcare facilities. Sci. Total Environ. 444, 441–450.

Laowagul, W., Yoshizumi, K., 2009. Behavior of benzene and 1, 3-butadiene concentrations in the urban atmosphere of Tokyo, Japan. Atmos. Environ. 43, 2052–2059.

Laslett, G., McBratney, A., Pahl, P.J., Hutchinson, M., 1987. Comparison of several spatial prediction methods for soil pH. J. Soil Sci. 38, 325–341.

Legay, C., Rodriguez, M.J., Sadiq, R., Sérodes, J.B., Levallois, P., Proulx, F., 2011. Spatial variations of human health risk associated with exposure to chlorination by-products occurring in drinking water. J. Environ. Manag. 92, 892–901.

Lewis, L., Chappell, G.A., Kobets, T., O'Brian, B.E., Sangaraju, D., Kosyk, O., Bodnar, W., Tretyakova, N.Y., Pogribny, I.P., Rusyn, I., 2019a. Sex-specific differences in genotoxic and epigenetic effects of 1, 3-butadiene among mouse tissues. Arch. Toxicol. 93 (3), 791–800.

Lewis, L., Borowa-Mazgaj, B., de Conti, A., Chappell, G.A., Luo, Y.S., Bodnar, W., Konganti, K., Wright, F.A., Threadgill, D.W., Chiu, W.A., Pogribny, I.P., 2019b.

Population-based analysis of DNA damage and epigenetic effects of 1, 3-butadiene in the mouse. Chem. Res. Toxicol.

Liang, C.-P., Chen, J.-S., Chien, Y.-C., Chen, C.-F., 2018. Spatial analysis of the risk to human health from exposure to arsenic contaminated groundwater: a kriging approach. Sci. Total Environ. 627, 1048–1057.

Liu, Y., Shao, M., Fu, L., Lu, S., Zeng, L., Tang, D., 2008. Source profiles of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) measured in China: Part I. Atmos. Environ. 42, 6247–6260.

Liu, Z., Li, N., Wang, N., 2016. Characterization and source identification of ambient VOCs in Jinan, China. Air Qual. Atmos. Health 9, 285–291.

Longley, P.A., Goodchild, M.F., Maguire, D.J., Rhind, D.W., 2005. Geographic Information Systems and Science. John Wiley & Sons.

McCarthy, M.C., O'Brien, T.E., Charrier, J.G., Hafner, H.R., 2009. Characterization of the chronic risk and hazard of hazardous air pollutants in the United States using ambient monitoring data. Environ. Health Perspect. 117, 790–796.

Millard, S.P., 2014. E Nv S Tats, an RP Ackage for E Nvironmental S Tatistics. Wiley StatsRef: Statistics Reference Online.

North Carolina Forest Service, 2019. Wildfires by Cause in North Carolina, 1970-2018. %20nc.pdf, Accessed date: 14 August 2019.

NRC (National Research Council), 1994. Science and Judgment in Risk Assessment. National Academy Press, Washington, DC. isbn=03 0904894X.

Owen, W., DeRouen, T., 1980. Estimation of the Mean for Lognormal Data Containing Zeroes and Left-Censored Values, with Applications to the Measurement of Worker Exposure to Air Contaminants. Biometrics, pp. 707–719.

Reiss, R., 2006. Temporal trends and weekend–weekday differences for benzene and 1, 3- butadiene in Houston, Texas. Atmos. Environ. Times 40, 4711–4724.

Ruchirawat, M., Navasumrit, P., Settachan, D., 2010. Exposure to benzene in various susceptible populations: co-exposures to 1, 3-butadiene and PAHs and implications for carcinogenic risk. Chem. Biol. Interact. 184, 67–76.

Sakizadeh, M., 2019. Spatiotemporal variations and characterization of the chronic cancer risk associated with benzene exposure. Ecotoxicol. Environ. Saf. 182, 109387.

Sapkota, A., Buckley, T.J., 2003. The mobile source effect on curbside 1, 3-butadiene, benzene, and particle-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons assessed at a tollbooth. J. Air Waste Manag. Assoc. 53, 740–748.

Schloeder, C., Zimmerman, N., Jacobs, M., 2001. Comparison of methods for interpolating soil properties using limited data. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 65, 470–479.

Simpson, G., Wu, Y., 2014. Accuracy and effort of interpolation and sampling: can GIS help lower field costs? ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 3, 1317–1333.

Smith, L.A., Mukerjee, S., Chung, K.C., Afghani, J., 2011. Spatial analysis and land use regression of VOCs and NO 2 in Dallas, Texas during two seasons. J. Environ. Monit. 13, 999–1007.

Stroud, C.A., Zaganescu, C., Chen, J., McLinden, C.A., Zhang, J., Wang, D., 2016. Toxic volatile organic air pollutants across Canada: multi-year concentration trends, regional air quality modelling and source apportionment. J. Atmos. Chem. 73, 137–164.

Taylor, S.J., Letham, B., 2018. Forecasting at scale. Am. Stat. 72, 37–45.

Touma, J.S., Cox, W.M., Tikvart, J.A., 2006. Spatial and temporal variability of ambient air toxics data. J. Air Waste Manag. Assoc. 56, 1716–1725.

USEPA, 1998. Integrated Risk Information System.

USEPA, 2000. Supplementary Guidance for Conducting Health Risk Assessment of Chemical Mixtures. Risk Assessment Forum Technical Panel. US Environmental Protection Agency Office of EPA/630/R-00/002.

Tripathi, N., Xu, Q., Palanki, S., 2019. Modeling and simulation of 1,3-butadiene production process from lignin. In: AIChE Spring Meeting and Global Congress on Process Safety.

USEPA, 1989. Risk assessment guidance for superfund. In: Human Health Evaluation Manuel, Washington, D.C. 1 EPA/540/1-89/002.

USEPA, 1994. Methods for Derivation of Inhalation Reference Concentrations and Application of Inhalation Dosimetry. Office of Health and Environmental Assessment,Environmental Criteria and Assessment Office, Research Triangle Park, NC EPA/600/8- 90/066F.

USEPA, 1995. Guidance for Risk Characterization. Washington, DC. http://www.epa. gov/spc/pdfs/rcguide.pdf.

USEPA, 2009. Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) on 1,3-butadiene. National Center for Environmental Assessment, Office of Research and Development, Washington, D.C.

Vallecillos, L., Espallargas, E., Allo, R., Marcé, R.M., Borrull, F., 2019. Passive sampling of volatile organic compounds in industrial atmospheres: uptake rate determinations and application. Sci. Total Environ. 666, 235–244.

Voltz, M., Webster, R., 1990. A comparison of kriging, cubic splines and classification for predicting soil properties from sample information. J. Soil Sci. 41, 473–490.

Walker, V.E., Degner, A., Carter, E.W., Nicklas, J.A., Walker, D.M., Tretyakova, N., Albertini, R.J., 2019. 1, 3-Butadiene metabolite 1, 2, 3, 4 diepoxybutane induces DNA adducts and micronuclei but not t (9; 22) translocations in human cells. Chem. Biol. Interact. 312, 108797.

Wallace, L., Nelson, W., Ziegenfus, R., Pellizzari, E., Michael, L., Whitmore, R., Zelon, H., Hartwell, T., Perritt, R., Westerdahl, D., 1991. The Los Angeles TEAM Study: personal exposures, indoor-outdoor air concentrations, and breath concentrations of 25 volatile organic compounds. J. Expo. Anal. Environ. Epidemiol. 1, 157–192.

Woodruff, T.J., Axelrad, D.A., Caldwell, J., Morello-Frosch, R., Rosenbaum, A., 1998. Public health implications of 1990 air toxics concentrations across the United States. Environ. Health Perspect. 106, 245–251.

Wu, Y., Hung, M.-C., 2016. Comparison of Spatial Interpolation Techniques Using Visualization and Quantitative Assessment. Applications of Spatial Statistics. pp. 17–34.

Yang, X., Wang, S., Zhang, W., Zhan, D., Li, J., 2017. The impact of anthropogenic emissions and meteorological conditions on the spatial variation of ambient SO2 concentrations: a panel study of 113 Chinese cities. Sci. Total Environ. 584, 318–328.

Ye, Y., Galbally, I., Weeks, I., Duffy, B., Nelson, P., 1998. Evaporative emissions of 1, 3- butadiene from petrol-fuelled motor vehicles. Atmos. Environ. 32, 2685–2692.

Zhang, Y., Wang, L., Chen, J., Zhao, Y., Lai, Y., Wu, P., 2018. Methodology of spatial risk assessment for arsenic species associated with sampling and analysis results optimization. Sci. Total Environ. 639, 8–18.

Zhang, P.-P., Wen, Y., An, J., Yu, Y.-X., Wu, M.-H., Zhang, X.-Y., 2012. DNA damage induced by three major metabolites of 1, 3-butadiene in human hepatocyte L02 cells. Mutat. Res. Genet. Toxicol. Environ. Mutagen. 747, 240–245.

Zhao, N., Liu, Y., Vanos, J.K., Cao, G., 2018. Day-of-week and seasonal patterns of PM2. 5 concentrations over the United States: Time-series analyses using the Prophet procedure. Atmos Environ 192, 116–127.

Zhao, C., Vodicka, P., Šrám1, R.J., Hemminki, K., 2000. Human DNA adducts of 1, 3- butadiene, an important environmental carcinogen. Carcinogenesis 21, 107–111.

Zhou, J., You, Y., Bai, Z., Hu, Y., Zhang, J., Zhang, N., 2011. Health risk assessment of personal inhalation exposure to volatile organic compounds in Tianjin, China. Sci. Total Environ. 409, 452–459.

Kaynak Göster

218 154

Sayıdaki Diğer Makaleler

First measurement of human exposure to current use pesticides (CUPs) in the atmosphere of central Chile: The case study of Mauco cohort


Paleoecological and recent data show a steady temporal evolution of carbon dioxide and temperature


Emission characteristics and chemical composition of particulate matter emitted by typical non-road construction machinery

Qijun ZHANG, Lei YANG, Chao MA, Yanjie ZHANG, Lin WU, Hongjun MAO

Fine and ultrafine particle number and size measurements from industrial combustion processes: Primary emissions field data


CEEMD-subset-OASVR-GRNN for ozone forecasting: Xiamen and Harbin as cases

Suling ZHU, Wang Xiao LING, Naiyu SHI, Mingming LU

Rapid improvement in air quality due to aerosol-pollution control during 2012–2018: An evidence observed in Kunshan in the Yangtze River Delta, China

Junmei WU, Yunjiang ZHANG, Ting WANG, Yulin QIAN

Applicability of the dynamic chamber-capture system (DCS) for estimating the flux of ammonia emission during liquid fertilizer spreading

Min-Suk KIM, Yun-Sik LEE, Jeong-Gyu KIM, Hyun-Gi MIN

Contribution of locally-produced and transported air pollution to particulate matter in a small insular coastal city


Short- and long-term variations, spatial analysis along with cancer health risk assessment associated with 1, 3-butadiene


Atmospheric visibility variation over global land surface during 1973–2012: Influence of meteorological factors and effect of aerosol, cloud on ABL evolution

Wenjun QU, Xiaoye ZHANG, Ganng FU, Yaqiang WANG