Road traffic as an air pollutant contributor within an industrial park environment

This study aims to understand the relationship of the composition of pollutants and road traffic volume in an industrial environment. Two sampling stations were selected and samples were taken at two points, 1 m and 100 m from the roadside for each station, comparing a working day to a non-working day. The concentration of particulate matter with diameters of less than 10 μm (PM10), carbon monoxide (CO), sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), and ozone (O3) and the number of vehicle travelling the road on a site in an industrial area were monitored. The results show that the concentrations of pollutants at the sampling point 1 m from the roadside were significantly higher than at the sampling point 100 m from the roadside for PM10 and CO, while the opposite was observed for the concentration of O3 (p ≤ .05). The levels PM10, CO and SO2 were significantly higher on a working day compared to a non-working day (p ≤ .05). The number of vehicles on a working day and the concentration of PM10 and CO were significantly correlated with r = 0.62 and 0.81, while O3 showed a negative significant correlation r = −0.86 at the 0.05 level (2-tailed). The results demonstrate that the concentration of pollutants relates to the number of vehicles on the road and the distance from the road. Even though the selected sampling site is an industrial area, the majority of the pollutants detected were related to the road traffic activity.


Alyuz, U., Alp, K., 2014. Emission inventory of primary air pollutants in 2010 from industrial processes in Turkey. Sci. Total Environ. 488–489, 369–381. http://dx.doi. org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2014.01.123.

Cárdenas Rodríguez, M., Dupont-Courtade, L., Oueslati, W., 2016. Air pollution and urban structure linkages: evidence from European cities. Renew. Sustain. Energy Rev. 53, 1–9.

Colvile, R.N., Hutchinson, E.J., Mindell, J.S., Warren, R.F., 2001. The transport sector as a source of air pollution. Atmos. Environ. 35, 1537–1565.

D'Angiola, A., Dawidowski, L.E., Gómez, D.R., Osses, M., 2010. On-road traffic emissions in a megacity. Atmos. Environ. 44, 483–493. 2009.11.004.

Dominick, D., Juahir, H., Latif, M.T., Zain, S.M., Aris, A.Z., 2012. Spatial assessment of air quality patterns in Malaysia using multivariate analysis. Atmos. Environ. 60,172–181.

Gao, H.O., Niemeier, D.A., 2008. Using functional data analysis of diurnal ozone and NOx cycles to inform transportation emissions control. 13, 221–238. 10.1016/j.trd.2008.02.003.

Giovanis, E., 2017. The relationship between teleworking, traffic and air pollution. Atmos. Pollut. Res.

González, C.M., Casanovas, S.S., Pignata, M.L., 1996. Biomonitoring of air pollutants from traffic and industries employing ramalina ecklonii ( spreng.) mey. And flot. In Cordoba, Argentina. Environ. Pollut. 91, 269–277.

Grahame, T.J., Schlesinger, R.B., 2010. Cardiovascular health and particulate vehicular emissions: a critical evaluation of the evidence. Air Qual. Atmos. Health 3, 3–27.

Gruden, D., 2003. Traffic and environment. In: In: Hutzinger, O. (Ed.), The Handbook of Environmental Chemistry, vol. 3 Springer-Verlag, Berlin Heidelberg New York.

Han, X., Naeher, L.P., 2006. A review of traffic-related air pollution exposure assessment studies in the developing world. Environ. Int. 32, 106–120. 1016/j.envint.2005.05.020.

Iorga, G., Balaceanu Raicu, C., Stefan, S., 2015. Annual air pollution level of major primary pollutants in Greater Area of Bucharest. Atmos. Pollut. Res. 6, 824–834. http://

Jerrett, M., Buzzelli, M., Burnett, R.T., DeLuca, P.F., 2005. Particulate air pollution, social confounders, and mortality in small areas of an industrial city. Soc. Sci. Med. 60, 2845–2863.

Jo, W.-K., Park, J.-H., 2005. Characteristics of roadside air pollution in Korean metropolitan city (Daegu) over last 5 to 6 years: temporal variations, standard exceedances, and dependence on meteorological conditions. Chemosphere 59, 1557–1573.

Kim, Y., Guldmann, J.M., 2011. Impact of traffic flows and wind directions on air pollution concentrations in Seoul, Korea. Atmos. Environ. 45, 2803–2810. http://dx.doi. org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2011.02.050.

Kimbrough, S., Baldauf, R.W., Hagler, G.S.W., Shores, R.C., Mitchell, W., Whitaker, D.A., Croghan, C.W., Vallero, D.A., 2013. Long-term continuous measurement of near-road air pollution in Las Vegas: seasonal variability in traffic emissions impact on local air quality. Air Qual. Atmos. Heal. 6, 295–305. 0171-x.

Kiss, G., Makra, L., Mika, J., Borsos, E., Motika, G., 2005. Temporal characteristics of air pollutant concentrations in Szeged, Hungary. Acta Climatol. Chorol. 38–39, 125–133.

Latif, M.T., Azmi, S.Z., Noor, A.D.M., Ismail, A.S., Johny, Z., Idrus, S., Mohamed, A.F., Mokhtar, M. Bin, 2011. The impact of urban growth on regional air quality surrounding the Langat River Basin, Malaysia. Environmentalist 31, 315–324. http://dx.

Latif, M.T., Dominick, D., Ahamad, F., Khan, M.F., Juneng, L., Hamzah, F.M., Nadzir, M.S.M., 2014. Long term assessment of air quality from a background station on the Malaysian Peninsula. Sci. Total Environ. 482–483, 336–348. 1016/j.scitotenv.2014.02.132.

Latif, M.T., Huey, L.S., Juneng, L., 2012. Variations of surface ozone concentration across the Klang Valley, Malaysia. Atmos. Environ. 61, 434–445. 1016/j.atmosenv.2012.07.062.

Lee, Y.J., Lim, Y.W., Yang, J.Y., Kim, C.S., Shin, Y.C., Shin, D.C., 2011. Evaluating the PM damage cost due to urban air pollution and vehicle emissions in Seoul, Korea. J. Environ. Manag. 92, 603–609.

Leksmono, N.S., Longhurst, J.W.S., Ling, K. a., Chatterton, T.J., Fisher, B.E. a., Irwin, J.G., 2006. Assessment of the relationship between industrial and traffic sources contributing to air quality objective exceedances: a theoretical modelling exercise. Environ. Model. Softw. 21, 494–500. 012.

Luken, R.A., Van Berkel, R., Leuenberger, H., Schwager, P., 2016. A 20-year retrospective of the national cleaner production centres. J. Clean. Prod. 112, 1165–1174. http://

Malaysian Industrial Development Authority (MIDA), 2014. Approved Manufacturing Projects 1980 – 2013. Loose sheet data. .

Mohd Sadullah, A.F., Syed Abd Latif, S.R., Yahaya, N.Z., 2003. Air pollution from motor vehicles a mathematical model analysis: case study in Ipoh City, Perak, Malaysia. J. East. Asia Soc. Transp. Stud. 5, 2367–2381.

Nasrudin, N., Nor, A.R.M., Noor, H.M., Abdullah, Y.A., 2013. Urban residents' awareness and readiness for sustainable transportation case study: Shah Alam, Malaysia. Proced. Soc. Behav. Sci. 105, 632–643.

Ocak, S., Turalioglu, F.S., 2008. Effect of meteorology on the atmospheric concentrations of traffic-related pollutants in Erzurum, Turkey. J. Int. Environ. Appl. Sci. 3, 325–335.

Pardo, C.F., Jiemian, Y., Hongyuan, Y., Choudury Rudya, M., 2011. Sustainable urban transport. In: Shanghai Manual – a Guide for Sustainable Urban Development in the 21st Century United Nation.

Ramos, C.A., Wolterbeek, H.T., Almeida, S.M., 2016. Air pollutant exposure and inhaled dose during urban commuting: a comparison between cycling and motorized modes. Air Qual. Atmos. Heal. 9, 867–879.

Sánchez-Ccoyllo, O.R., Ynoue, R.Y., Martins, L.D., Astolfo, R., Miranda, R.M., Freitas, E.D., Borges, A.S., Fornaro, A., Freitas, H., Moreira, A., Andrade, M.F., 2009. Vehicular particulate matter emissions in road tunnels in Sao Paulo, Brazil. Environ. Monit. Assess. 149, 241–249.

Smith, L., Mukerjee, S., Kovalcik, K., Sams, E., Stallings, C., Hudgens, E., Scott, J., Krantz, T., Neas, L., 2015. Near-road measurements for nitrogen dioxide and its association with traffic exposure zones. Atmos. Pollut. Res. 6, 1082–1086. 1016/j.apr.2015.06.005.

Soylu, S., 2007. Estimation of Turkish road transport emissions. Energy Pol. 35, 4088–4094.

Tiwari, S., Tunved, P., Hopke, P.K., Srivastava, A.K., Bisht, D.S., Pandey, A.K., 2016. Observations of ambient trace gas and PM10 concentrations at Patna, Central Ganga Basin during 2013-2014: the influence of meteorological variables on atmospheric pollutants. Atmos. Res. 180, 138–149. 05.017.

Wahid, N.B.A., Latif, M.T., Suratman, S., 2013. Composition and source apportionment of surfactants in atmospheric aerosols of urban and semi-urban areas in Malaysia. Chemosphere 91, 1508–1516. 029.

Wan Mahiyuddin, W.R., Sahani, M., Aripin, R., Latif, M.T., Thach, T.-Q., Wong, C.-M., 2013. Short-term effects of daily air pollution on mortality. Atmos. Environ. 65, 69–79.

Yan, F., Winijkul, E., Jung, S., Bond, T.C., Streets, D.G., 2011. Global emission projections of particulate matter (PM): I. Exhaust emissions from on-road vehicles. Atmos. Environ. 45, 4830–4844.

Zhang, G., Li, J., Li, X.-D., Xu, Y., Guo, L.-L., Tang, J.-H., Lee, C.S.L., Liu, X., Chen, Y.-J., 2010. Impact of anthropogenic emissions and open biomass burning on regional carbonaceous aerosols in South China. Environ. Pollut. 158, 3392–3400. http://dx.

Zhang, K., Batterman, S., 2013. Air pollution and health risks due to vehicle traffic. Sci. Total Environ. 450–451, 307–316. 074.

Kaynak Göster