Potential thyroid carcinogens in atmospheric emissions from industrial facilities in Manizales, a midsize Andean city in Colombia

Background: Manizales is a city in Colombia that presents high rates of thyroid cancer. It has a medium industrial development and there are concerns of the impact of their emissions on health, particularly on thyroid cancer. In this paper we characterize the geographical pattern of industrial atmospheric emissions of suspected thyroid carcinogens. Methods: We systematized data of industries in two groups. First, those with reports of atmospheric emissions of suspected thyroid carcinogens (reporting facilities e RFs), and then, industries not required to report or facilities with no-available emissions data but belonging to the same SIC-codes than RFs (nonreporting facilities e non-RFs). For non-RFs, annual average atmospheric emissions were estimated using a per-employee algorithm. The spatial pattern of sources emitting carcinogens was represented by plotting facilities by size and amounts of specific pollutants released. Results: We found 11 RFs and 25 non-RFs in urban Manizales. RFs belong tothe metalworking industries, plastics & rubber, manufacture of electrical and electronic devices, waste incineration, cremation, and meat production. Most of them were concentrated in the southeast of the city. Several RFs reported atmospheric emissions of carcinogens exceeding maximum permitted emission limits set in Colombian law. Mostof non-RFs weremicro and small industries, and were clustered in the southeastof the cityand along the main road axis. Conclusions: We found clusters of pollution sources near densely populated areas. Thyroid cancer incidence might be greater in areas closer to industries than in furthest areas. We will submit a paper that studies this hypothesis soon.

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