First measurement of human exposure to current use pesticides (CUPs) in the atmosphere of central Chile: The case study of Mauco cohort

Chile is a leading agricultural producer and thus consumer of insecticides, herbicides, and fungicides. In Molina, Central Chile, a prospective cohort has been established for studying the incidence and risk factors of chronic diseases in the adult population. Our goals were to measure airborne current use pesticides (CUPs), assess their spatial distribution and potential sources, and estimate health risks for the population in Molina. CUPs were measured using passive air samplers (PAS), deployed on six sites from October 2015 to August 2016. Thirty-eight pesticides were analyzed using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), but only nine of them were detected. Chlorpyrifos (CPF) was detected with air concentrations ranging from 444 to 14 624 (pg m−3 ). Diazinon, atrazine, dimethoate, metolachlor, simazine, terbuthylazine and tebuconazole were also detected; only pendimethalin had concentrations as high as those of CPF, with a maximum of 14 927 (pg m−3 ). Backward wind trajectories were used to estimate locations of potential sources contributing to airborne CUPs concentrations. Most of the exposure to CUPs was associated with local sources, while regional sources southern/ eastern/western of Molina appear to contribute as secondary sources (soil evaporation followed by atmospheric transport) in spring and summer seasons. A health risk assessment using US-EPA's methodology was carried out for inhalation exposure of detected pesticides. None of the measured CUPs were associated with a hazard quotient (HQ) greater than 1, indicating no significant risk due to inhalation of pesticides in Molina's population with the exception of the group of children below 12 years old. However, further investigations are needed to evaluate others CUPs exposure route such as food consumption and dermal exposure to improve our health risk estimations.


Begum, B.A., Kim, E., Jeong, C.H., Lee, D.W., Hopke, P.K., 2005. Evaluation of the potential source contribution function using the 2002 Quebec forest fire episode. Atmos. Environ. 39 (20), 3719–3724.

Coscollà, C., López, A., Yahyaoui, A., Colin, P., Robin, C., Poinsignon, Q., Yusà, V., 2017. Human exposure and risk assessment to airborne pesticides in a rural French community. Sci. Total Environ. 584, 856–868. 01.132.

Climent, M.J., Coscolla, C., López, A., Barra, R., Urrutia, R., 2019. Legacy and current-use pesticides (CUPs) in the atmosphere of a rural area in central Chile, using passive air samplers. Sci. Total Environ. 662, 646–654. 2019.01.302. Apr 20.

Degrendele, C., Okonski, K., Melymuk, L., Landlová, L., Kukucka, P., Audy, O., Klanova, J., 2015. Pesticides in the atmosphere: a comparison of gas-particle partitioning and particle size distribution of legacy and current-use pesticides. Atmos. Chem. Phys. 16, 1531–1544 2016.

Ec, 2017. EU Pesticides Database: Chlorpyrifos. Retrieved. from. food/plant/pesticides/eu-pesticides-database/public/?event=activesubstance.detail &language=EN&selectedID=1130, Accessed date: 22 May 2017.

Estellano, V.H., Pozo, K., Efstathiou, C., Pozo, K., Corsolini, S., Focardi, S., 2015. Assessing levels and seasonal variations of current-use pesticides (CUPs) in the Tuscan atmosphere, Italy, using polyurethane foam disks (PUF) passive air samplers. Environ. Pollut. 205, 52–59.

Ferreccio, C., Roa, J.C., Bambs, C., Vives, A., Corvalán, A.H., Cortés, S., 2016. Study protocol for the Maule Cohort (MAUCO) of chronic diseases, Chile 2014–2024. BMC Public Health 16 (1), 122.

Gouin, T., Shoeib, M., Harner, T., 2008a. Atmospheric concentrations of current-use pesticides across south-central Ontario using monthly-resolved passive air samplers. Atmos. Environ. 42 (34), 8096–8104. 070.

Gouin, T., Wania, F., Ruepert, C., E Castillo, L., 2008b. Field testing passive air samplers for current use pesticides in a tropical environment. Environ. Sci. Tech. 42 (17), 6625–6630.

Icaza, G., Núñez, L., Torres-Avilés, F., Díaz, N., Villarroel, J.E., Soto, A., et al., 2013. Atlas de mortalidad en Chile, 2001- 2008. Talca Chile. Editorial Universidad de Talca, pp. 15–65.

Kim, K.H., Kabir, E., Jahan, S.A., 2017. Exposure to pesticides and the associated human health effects. Arch. Toxicol. 575, 525–535. 1849-x10.1016/j.scitotenv.2016.09.009.

Koblizkova, M., Genualdi, S., Lee, S.C., Harner, T., 2012. Application of sorbent impregnated polyurethane foam (SIP) disk passive air samplers for investigating organochlorine pesticides and polybrominated diphenyl ethers at the global scale. Environ. Sci. Tech. 46 (1), 391–396.

Laborde, A., Tomasina, F., Bianchi, F., Bruné, M.N., Buka, I., Comba, P., et al., 2014. Children's health in Latin America: the influence of environmental exposures. Environ. Health Perspect. 123 (3), 201–209.

Lee, S., McLaughlin, R., Harnly, M., Gunier, R., Kreutzer, R., 2002. Community exposures to airborne agricultural pesticides in California: ranking of inhalation risks. Environ. Health Perspect. 110 (12), 1175.

Li, H., Ma, H., Lydy, M.J., You, J., 2014. Occurrence, seasonal variation and inhalation exposure of atmospheric organophosphate and pyrethroid pesticides in an urban community in South China. Chemosphere 95, 363–369. chemosphere.2013.09.046.

López, A., Yusà, V., Muñoz, A., Vera, T., Borràs, E., Ródenas, M., Coscollà, C., 2017. Risk assessment of airborne pesticides in a Mediterranean region of Spain. Sci. Total Environ. 574 (1), 724–734.

Luo, Y., Zhang, M., 2009. Multimedia transport and risk assessment of organophosphate pesticides and a case study in the northern San Joaquin Valley of California. Chemosphere 75 (7), 969–978. 005.

Muñoz-Quezada, M.T., et al., 2017. Exposure to organophosphate (OP) pesticides and health conditions in agricultural and non-agricultural workers from Maule, Chile. Int. J. Environ. Health Res. 27 (1), 82–93. 1268679.

Pino, P., Iglesias, V., Garreaud, R., Cortés, S., Canals, M., Folch, W., et al., 2015. Chile confronts its environmental health future after 25 Years of accelerated growth. Ann. Global Health 81 (3), 354–367.

Pozo, K., Harner, T., Lee, S.C., Wania, F., Muir, D.C., Jones, K.C., 2009. Seasonally resolved concentrations of persistent organic pollutants in the global atmosphere from the first year of the GAPS study. Environ. Sci. Tech. 43 (3), 796–803. 10.1021/es802106a.

Pozo, K., Harner, T., Rudolph, A., Oyola, G., Estellano, V.H., Ahumada-Rudolph, R., ... Focardi, S., 2012. Survey of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the atmosphere of rural, urban and industrial areas of Concepcion, Chile, using passive air samplers. Atmos. Pollut. Res. 3 (4), 426–434.

Pozo, K., Llanos, Y., Estellano, V.H., Cortes, S., Jorquera, H., Gerli, L., ... Focardi, S., 2016. Occurrence of chlorpyrifos in the atmosphere of the Araucania Region in Chile using polyurethane foam-based passive air samplers. Atmos. Pollut. Res. 7 (4), 706–710.

Pozo, K., Oyola, G., Estellano, V.H., Harner, T., Rudolph, A., Prybilova, P., ... Focardi, S., 2017. Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) in the atmosphere of three Chilean cities using passive air samplers. Sci. Total Environ. 586, 107–114. 1016/j.scitotenv.2016.11.054.

SAG, 2012. Declaración de Venta de Plaguicidas, año 2012. Santiago, Chile: Servicio Agrícola y Ganadero, División Protección Agrícola y Forestal. Spss Inc Released, 2008. SPSS Statistics for Windows. SPSS Inc, Chicago Version 17.0.

Stein, A.F., Draxler, R.R., Rolph, G.D., Stunder, B.J.B., Cohen, M.D., Ngan, F., 2015. Noaa's HYSPLIT atmospheric transport and dispersion modeling system. Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 2059–2078. December 1st.

US-EPA, 2017. Pesticide Volatilization. Retrieved. from. reducing-pesticide-drift/pesticide-volatilization, Accessed date: 12 April 2017.

US-EPA, 2011. In: Highlights of the Exposure Factors Handbook (2011 Final Report) (Vol. Cap. 8 Body Weight), (Washington DC).

US-EPA, 1998. Human Health Risk Assessment Protocol: Chapter 7 Risk and Hazard Charac- Terization. env-chem/%20Risk%20Characterization%20Region%206.pdf.

World Bank, 2019. Countries and Economies. Retrieved. from. https://data.worldbank. org/country/chile, Accessed date: 22 March 2019.

Yao, Y., Harner, T., Blanchard, P., Tuduri, L., Waite, D., Poissant, L., ... Sverko, E., 2008. Pesticides in the atmosphere across Canadian agricultural regions. Environ. Sci. Tech. 42 (16), 5931–5937.

Yao, Y., Harner, T., Ma, J., Tuduri, L., Blanchard, P., 2007. Sources and occurrence of dacthal in the Canadian atmosphere. Environ. Sci. Technol. 41 (3), 688–694. https://

Yao, Y., Tuduri, L., Harner, T., Blanchard, P., Waite, D., Poissant, L., ... Sverko, E., 2006. Spatial and temporal distribution of pesticide air concentrations in Canadian agricultural regions. Atmos. Environ. 40 (23), 4339–4351. atmosenv.2006.03.039.

ACHIPIA, Accessed date: 22 January 2020.

Kaynak Göster

213 154

Sayıdaki Diğer Makaleler

Emission inventory for on-road traffic fleets in Greater Yangon, Myanmar

Lai Nguyen HUY, Nguyen Thi Kim Oanh, Thiri Tin HTUT, Ohnmar May Tin HLAING

Emission characteristics and chemical composition of particulate matter emitted by typical non-road construction machinery

Qijun ZHANG, Lei YANG, Chao MA, Yanjie ZHANG, Lin WU, Hongjun MAO

Contribution of locally-produced and transported air pollution to particulate matter in a small insular coastal city


Short- and long-term variations, spatial analysis along with cancer health risk assessment associated with 1, 3-butadiene


Applicability of the dynamic chamber-capture system (DCS) for estimating the flux of ammonia emission during liquid fertilizer spreading

Min-Suk KIM, Yun-Sik LEE, Jeong-Gyu KIM, Hyun-Gi MIN

Atmospheric visibility variation over global land surface during 1973–2012: Influence of meteorological factors and effect of aerosol, cloud on ABL evolution

Wenjun QU, Xiaoye ZHANG, Ganng FU, Yaqiang WANG

Fine and ultrafine particle number and size measurements from industrial combustion processes: Primary emissions field data


Rapid improvement in air quality due to aerosol-pollution control during 2012–2018: An evidence observed in Kunshan in the Yangtze River Delta, China

Junmei WU, Yunjiang ZHANG, Ting WANG, Yulin QIAN

First measurement of human exposure to current use pesticides (CUPs) in the atmosphere of central Chile: The case study of Mauco cohort


CEEMD-subset-OASVR-GRNN for ozone forecasting: Xiamen and Harbin as cases

Suling ZHU, Wang Xiao LING, Naiyu SHI, Mingming LU