On-road traffic emissions of Greater Yangon in 2015 were estimated using IVE model. Local surveys revealed the engine technology distributions, driving activities and flows for the fleets of bus, personal car (PC), pickup (PU), taxi, van and light duty truck. Vehicles in Greater Yangon were relatively new but recent use of leaded gasoline caused deactivation of catalytic converters that bring about high emission factors (EFs) of CO, VOC and NOx from gasoline-powered vehicles. Pre-Euro diesel-powered buses and trucks were high PM emitters while preEuro and Euro1 gasoline vehicles were high emitters of CO and VOC. Composite EFs of CO and VOC were the highest for PU (45.1 and 3.2 g/km, respectively) followed by taxi (34.2 and 2.6 g/km, respectively). CNG vehicles with their small number and low EFs contributed the least to total on-road traffic emissions. The bus fleet, despite being diesel-powered at only 28%, still had the highest EFs of PM and NOx, 1.6 and 2.7 g/km, respectively. Total emissions for 2015 (base case) in Greater Yangon from six surveyed fleets and the motorcycle fleet of CO; VOC; NOx; PM; BC; OC; CO2; CH4 and air toxics, in Gg/year, were 358; 41; 24; 3.8; 1.6; 0.9; 5358, 6.8 and 3.1, respectively. If all vehicles in this domain at least comply with Euro3 standard, the collective emission reduction from the base case of the air pollutants would be 71% while that of GWP (GHGs and shortlived climate pollutants) 43%, hence showing significant potential co-benefits.
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