INCLUDING MINORITIES: PARTICIPATORY CONSTITUTION-MAKING AND LEGAL FRAMEWORK FOR THE EFFECTIVE PARTICIPATION

In multicultural societies, citizens from the different ethnic and religious backgrounds may face particular constraints which restrict their citizenship rights and their free participation in society. Political participation of minorities is a crucial element for the prevention of discrimination based on religion, race, language, and ethnicity. In this sense, the right to political participation is considered embedded in the minority rights documents because guaranteeing minority voice in public affairs and protecting rights can be realised through developing special legal, political and institutional mechanisms. Minority participation in decision-making processes within the conceptual and legal dimensions will be the main focus of this paper. Participatory processes in diverse societies, mechanisms and the role of civil society will be discussed first. Then, these notions will be embodied within the example of participatory constitution-making mechanisms. Finally, international legal instruments referring to the minority participation in decision-making processes will be discussed with a special focus on the Lund Recommendations.

AZINLIKLARI DAHİL ETMEK: KATILIMCI ANAYASA YAPIMI VE ETKİN KATILIM İÇİN YASAL ÇERÇEVE

Çok kültürlü toplumlarda, farklı etnik ve dini kökenlerden gelen vatandaşlar, yurttaşlık haklarını kısıtlayacak biçimde, siyasi katılım haklarını engelleyen kimi durumlarla karşılaşabilirler. Azınlıkların siya si katılımı din, ırk, dil ve etnik kökene dayalı ayrımcılığın önlenmesi için çok önemli bir unsurdur. Bu anlamda, siyasi katılım hakkı azınlık hakları hükümleriyle direkt bağlantılı olarak kabul edilmektedir çünkü azınlıkların sesinin kamusal alanda güvence altına alınması ve haklarının korunmasında uluslararası özel hukuksal, politik ve kurumsal mekanizmalar geliştirilmesi önemli rol oynar. Kavramsal ve hukuksal boyutta karar verme süreçlerine azınlık katılımı bu çalışmanın ana odağını oluşturacaktır. Öncelikle, çok kültürlü toplumlarda katılımcı süreçler, çeşitli mekanizmalar ve sivil toplumun rolü çerçevesinde tartışılacaktır. Sonrasında bu kavramlar, katılımcı anayasa yapma örneği üzerinden somutlaştırılacaktır. Son olarak, başta Lund Tavsiyeleri olmak üzere azınlık katılımını düzenleyen uluslararası anlaşmalar, ilgili maddeler bağlamında tartışılacaktır.

Kaynakça

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