Prevalence of Risk for Substance-Related and Behavioral Addictions Among University Students in Turkey

This study aims to investigate the prevalence of risk for substance-related and behavioral addictions among university students in Turkey. In total, 612 students were included in this study, and they completed an online questionnaire consisting of the Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence, the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test, the Drug Abuse Screening Test, the Smartphone Addiction Scale-Short Version, the Young’s Internet Addiction Test-Short Form, the South Oaks Gambling Screen, and the Burden of Behavioral Addiction Form. Results revealed that the rates of potential alcohol dependence, pathological internet use, and potential smartphone addiction were 2.0%, 11.4%, and 24.7%, respectively. Approximately 0.3% of students reported severe problems related to substance use. The rates of high risk of compulsive shopping, problematic social media use, food addiction, gaming addiction, and sex/pornography addiction were 2.0%, 3.6%, 3.4%, 4.9%, and 5.6%, respectively. The rates of potential alcohol dependence, pathological gambling, gaming addiction, and sex/pornography addiction were found to be higher in men. Mild nicotine addiction, problematic internet use and possible smartphone addiction, food addiction, and gaming addiction rates were higher in the age group of 18 to 24 years. In conclusion, screening for addiction risk among youth is important for effective prevention, early diagnosis, and treatment.

Kaynakça

Ait-Daoud, N., Blevins, D., Khanna, S., Sharma, S., Holstege, C. P., & Amin, P. (2019). Women and Addiction: An Update. The Medical clinics of North America, 103(4), 699-711.

Aker, S., Şahin, M. K., Sezgin, S., & Oğuz, G. (2017). Psychosocial Factors Affecting Smartphone Addiction in University Students. Journal of Addictions Nursing, 28(4), 215-219.

American Psychiatric Association. (2013). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (DSM-5®). American Psychiatric Pub.

American Society of Addiction Medicine (ASAM). (2019). Definition of Addiction. https://www.asam.org/quality-practice/definition-of-addiction. Becker J. B. (2016). Sex differences in addiction. Dialogues in clinical neuroscience, 18(4), 395-402.

Becker, J. B., McClellan, M. L., & Reed, B. G. (2017). Sex differences, gender and addiction. Journal of Neuroscience Research, 95(1-2), 136- 147.

Burrows, T., Kay-Lambkin, F., Pursey, K., Skinner, J., & Dayas, C. (2018). Food addiction and associations with mental health symptoms: a systematic review with meta-analysis. Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics, 31(4), 544-572.

Choi, S. W., Kim, D. J., Choi, J. S., Ahn, H., Choi, E. J., Song, W. Y. I., & Youn, H. (2015). Comparison of risk and protective factors associated with smartphone addiction and Internet addiction. Journal of Behavioral Addictions, 4(4), 308-314.

Dalbudak, E. (2016). İnternet bağımlılığında tanı ve tedavi [Diagnosis and treatment of internet addiction]. Psikiyatride Güncel, 6(3), 183- 191.

Dalbudak, E., Evren, C., Aldemir, S., Coskun, K. S., Ugurlu, H., & Yildirim, F. G. (2013b). Relationship of internet addiction severity with depression, anxiety, and alexithymia, temperament and character in university students. Cyberpsychology, Behavior and Social Networking, 16(4), 272-278.

Davoren, M. P., Demant, J., Shiely, F., & Perry, I. J. (2016). Alcohol consumption among university students in Ireland and the United Kingdom from 2002 to 2014: a systematic review. BMC Public Health, 16, 173.

Dayi, A., Gulec, G., & Mutlu, F. (2015). Eskişehir Osmangazi Üniversitesi öğrencilerinde sigara, alkol ve madde kullanım yaygınlığı [Prevalence of tobacco, alcohol and substance use among Eskisehir Osmangazi University students]. Dusunen Adam The Journal of Psychiatry and Neurological Sciences, 28, 309-318.

Demirci, K., Akgonul, M., & Akpinar, A. (2015). Relationship of smartphone use severity with sleepquality, depression, and anxiety in university students. Journal of Behavioral Addictions, 4(2), 85-92

Derevensky, J. L., Hayman, V., & Gilbeau, L. (2019). Behavioral addictions: excessive gambling, gaming, Internet, and smartphone use among children and adolescents. Pediatric Clinics, 66(6), 1163-1182.

Doğan, D. G., & Ulukol, B. (2010). Ergenlerin sigara içmesini etkileyen faktörler ve sigara karşıtı iki eğitim modelinin etkinliği [Factors Contributing to Smoking and Efficiency of Two Different Education Models Among Adolescents]. Journal of Inonu University Medical Faculty, 17(3), 179- 185.

Duvarcı, İ., & Varan, A. (2001). South Oaks kumar tarama testi Türkçe formu güvenirlik ve geçerlik çalışması [Reliability and Validity Study of the Turkish Form of the South Oaks Gambling Screen]. Turkish Journal of Psychiatry, 12(1), 34-45.

Engwall, D., Hunter, R., & Steinberg, M. (2004). Gambling and other risk behaviors on university campuses. Journal of American College Health, 52(6), 245-255.

Evren, C., Can, Y., Yılmaz, A., Ovalı, E., Çetingök, S., Karabulut, V., & Mutlu, E. (2013). Madde Kötüye Kullanımı Tarama Testi’nin (DAST-10) eroin bağımlısı erişkinlerde ve madde kullanım bozukluğu olan ergenlerde psikometrik özellikleri [Psychometric Properties of the Drug Abuse Screening Test (DAST-10) in Heroin Dependent Adults and Adolescents with Drug Use Disorder]. Dusunen Adam The Journal of Psychiatry and Neurological Sciences, 26, 351-359.

Fam J. Y. (2018). Prevalence of internet gaming disorder in adolescents: A meta-analysis across three decades. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, 59(5), 524-531.

Goodman, A. (1990). Addiction: Definition and implications. British Journal of Addiction, 85, 1403-1408.

Havaçeligi Atlam, D., & Yuncu Z. (2017). Üniversite öğrencilerinde sigara, alkol ve madde kullanım bozukluğu ve ailesel madde kullanımı arasındaki ilişki [Relationship Between Cigarette, Alcohol, Substance Use Disorders and Familial Drug Use in University Students]. Turkish Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 20(3), 161-170.

Heatherton, T. F., Kozlowski, L. T., Frecker, R. C., & Fagerström, K. O. (1991). The Fagerström test for nicotine dependence: a revision of the Fagerström Tolerance Questionnaire. British Journal of Addiction, 86(9), 1119-1127.

IBM Corp. Released 2013. IBM SPSS Statistics for Windows, Version 22.0. Armonk, NY: IBM Corp.

Kutlu, M., Savcı M., Demir, Y. ve Aysan, F. (2016). Young İnternet Bağımlılığı Testi Kısa Formunun Türkçe uyarlaması: Üniversite öğrencileri ve ergenlerde geçerlilik ve güvenilirlik çalışması [Turkish adaptation of Young’s Internet Addiction Test-Short Form: a reliability and validity study on university students and adolescents]. Anatolian Journal of Psychiatry, 17(1), 69-76.

Kwon, M., Kim, D. J., Cho, H., & Yang, S. (2013). The smartphone addiction scale: development and validation of a short version for adolescents. PloS One, 8(12), Article e83558.

Lanier, C. A., Nicholson, T., & Duncan, D. (2001). Drug use and mental well being among a sample of undergraduate and graduate college students. Journal of Drug Education, 31(3), 239-248.

Lejoyeux, M., Adès, J., Tassain, V., & Solomon, J. (1996). Phenomenology and psychopathology of uncontrolled buying. The American Journal of Psychiatry, 153(12), 1524-1529.

Lesieur, H. R., & Blume, S. B. (1987). The South Oaks Gambling Screen (SOGS): A new instrument for the identification of pathological gamblers. American Journal of Psychiatry, 144(9), 1184-1188.

Lopez-Fernandez, O. (2015). Short version of the Smartphone Addiction Scale adapted to Spanish and French: Towards a cross-cultural research in problematic mobile phone use. Addictive Behaviors, 64, 275-280.

Maraz, A., Griffiths, M. D., & Demetrovics, Z. (2016). The prevalence of compulsive buying: a meta-analysis. Addiction, 111(3), 408-419.

Martins-Oliveira, J. G., Jorge, K. O., Ferreira, R. C., Ferreira, E. F., Vale, M. P., & Zarzar, P. M. (2016). Risk of alcohol dependence: prevalence, related problems and socioeconomic factors. Ciencia & Saude Coletiva, 21(1), 17-26.

Nowak D. E. (2018). A Meta-analytical Synthesis and Examination of Pathological and Problem Gambling Rates and Associated Moderators Among College Students, 1987-2016. Journal of Gambling Studies, 34(2), 465-498.

Noyan, C. O., Darçin, A. E., Nurmedov, S., Yilmaz, O., & Dilbaz, N. (2015). Akıllı Telefon Bağımlılığı Ölçeğinin Kısa Formunun üniversite öğrencilerinde Türkçe geçerlilik ve güvenilirlik çalışması [Validity and reliability of the Turkish version of the Smartphone Addiction Scale-Short Version among university students]. Anatolian Journal of Psychiatry, 16, 73-81.

Öztürk et al. (2020). The effect of Turkish Green Crescent Society APTP program on students’ knowledge and emotional awareness about tobacco, alcohol, drug, and technology addiction. Addicta: The Turkish Journal on Addictions, 7(3), 180-198.

Partington, S., Partington, E., Heather, N., Longstaff, F., Allsop, S., Jankowski, M., Wareham, H., Stephens, R., & Gibson, A. S. C. (2013). The relationship between membership of a university sports group and drinking behaviour among students at English Universities. Addiction Research & Theory, 21(4), 339-347.

Saatçioğlu, Ö., Evren, C., & Çakmak, D. (2002). Alkol kullanım bozuklukları tanıma testinin geçerliği ve güvenirliği. Türkiye’de Psikiyatri, 4(2-3), 107-113.

Saunders, J. B., Aasland, O. G., Babor, T. F., de la Fuente, J. R., & Grant, M (1993). WHO collaborative project on early detection of persons with harmful alcohol consumption, II: development of the screening instrument ‘AUDIT.’. British Journal of Addictions. 88(6):791-804.

Skinner, H. A. (1982). The drug abuse screening test. Addictive behaviors, 7(4), 363-371.

Turhan, E., İnandı, T., Özer, C., & Akoğlu, S. (2011). Üniversite öğrencilerinde madde kullanımı, şiddet ve bazı psikolojik özellikler [Substance use, violence among university students and their some psychological characteristics]. Turkish Journal of Public Health, 9 (1), 33-44 .

Turkey Statistical Institute (TSI). (2017). https://data.tuik.gov.tr/ Bulten/Index?p=Hanehalki-Bilisim-Teknolojileri-(BT)-Kullanim-Arastirmasi-2020-33679.

Turkey Statistical Institute (TSI). (2019). Health Interview Survey. https://data.tuik.gov.tr/Bulten/Index?p=Turkiye-Saglik-Arastirmasi-2019-33661.

Turkish Monitoring Center for Drugs and Drug Addiction (TUBIM). (2019). General Population Survey. http://www.narkotik.pol.tr/kurumlar/narkotik.pol.tr/TUB%C4%B0M/Ulusal%20Yay%C4%B1nlar/2019-TURKIYE-UYUSTURUCU-RAPORU.pdf

Ünübol, H., & Hızlı Sayar, G. (2019). Türkiye bağımlılık risk profili ve ruh sağlığı haritası proje sonuç raporu (TURBAHAR). Üsküdar Üniversitesi Yayınları.

Uysal, M. A., Kadakal, F., Karşidağ, C., Bayram, N. G., Uysal, O., & Yilmaz, V. (2004). Fagerstrom nikotin bağımlılık testinin Türkçe versiyonunun güvenirliği ve faktör analizi [Fagerstrom test for nicotine dependence: reliability in a Turkish sample and factor analysis]. Tuberk Toraks, 52(2), 115-21.

Varol, M. (2011). Alkol Raporu. İstanbul: Türkiye Yeşilay Cemiyeti.

Vayısoğlu, S. K., Öncü, E., & Güven, Y. (2019). Üniversite öğrencilerinde kumar oynama sıklığı ve heyecan arama davranışı ile ilişkisi [The Frequency of Gambling among University Students and Its Relationships to Their Sensation-Seeking Behaviors]. Addicta: The Turkish Journal on Addictions, 6(1), 69-90.

World Health Organization (WHO). (2008). The World Health Organization on the global tobacco epidemic. Population and Development Review, 34(1), 188-194.

Young, K. S. (1998). Caught in the net: How to recognize the signs of internet addiction--and a winning strategy for recover. John Wiley & Sons.

Kaynak Göster

Addicta: The Turkish Journal on Addictions
  • ISSN: 2148-7286
  • Yayın Aralığı: Yılda 3 Sayı
  • Başlangıç: 2014
  • Yayıncı: AVES Yayıncılık

7b5.2b

Sayıdaki Diğer Makaleler

Craving among Synthetic Cannabinoid Users: A Qualitative Approach

Yağmur Suadiye DALGIÇ, Hakan COŞKUNOL

COVID-19 Pandemic and Drug Use Disorder

Rujittika MUNGMUNPUNTIPANTIP, Viroj WIWANITKIT

The Success of Smoking Cessation Treatments: The Gulhane Experience

Yakup ARSLAN, Nesrin ÖCAL, Ahmet ÇAĞIN, Deniz DOGAN, Cantürk TAŞÇI

Selfitis Disease Behavior Scale: Turkish Validity and Reliability Study

Ramazan KIRAÇ, Mehmet Akif ERİŞEN, Fatma ÇİFTCİ KIRAÇ, Seda UYAR

Re-evaluating the Digital Gaming Profiles of Children and Adolescents during the COVID-19 Pandemic: A Comparative Analysis Comprising 2 Years of Pre-Pandemic Data

Süleyman ÇAKIROĞLU, Nusret SOYLU, Vahdet GÖRMEZ

Internet Addiction as a Precursor for Cyber and Displaced Aggression: A Survey Study on Pakistani Youth

Sohni SIDDIQUI, Anjum Bano KAZMI, Ume Nabeela SIDDIQUI

Internet Addiction and Stressors Causing Internet Addiction in Primary School Children during the COVID-19 Pandemic: A Descriptive and CrossSectional Study from Turkey

Zeynep AKÖZLÜ, Tuğçe KOLUKİSA, Özlem ÖZTÜRK ŞAHİN, Aysel TOPAN

Psychiatric Correlates of Internet Gaming Disorder in Children

Gül ÜNSEL BOLAT, Didem ÇELİK, Semiha ÖZGÜL, Eyüp Sabri ERCAN

Adaptation of Smartphone Addiction InventoryShort Form to Turkish

Zeynep DEVRAN MUHARREMOĞLU, Nüket PAKSOY ERBAYDAR

Prevalence of Risk for Substance-Related and Behavioral Addictions Among University Students in Turkey

Esma AKPINAR ASLAN, Sedat BATMAZ, Zekiye ÇELİKBAŞ, Oğuzhan KILINÇEL, Gökhan HIZLI SAYAR, Hüseyin ÜNÜBOL