Makale özeti ve diğer detaylar.
Bu araştırmanın amacı, yankılayıcı okuma yöntemi ile okuma güçlüğünün aşılıp aşılmayacağını belirlemektir. Araştırma, nitel çalışma modelinde olup durum çalışması niteliğindedir. Araştırmada veri toplama aracı olarak, öğrencinin sesli okuma beceri düzeyini belirlemek için Akyol'un (2008), Harris ve Sipay (1990), Ekwall ve Shanker (1988:412; akt.: Akyol, 2008:92) ve May (1986)'den yararlanarak dilimize uyarladığı "Yanlış Analizi Envanteri" , "Okuma Metinleri (1-4. Sınıf Düzeyi)" ve "Öğrencinin Metin Okuma Ses Kayıtları" kullanılmıştır. Uygulama bir ilköğretim dördüncü sınıf öğrencisi ile yapılmıştır. Bu öğrencide, herhangi bir fiziksel veya zihinsel problem ya da dil ve konuşma bozukluğu olmamasına rağmen akıcı okuma problemi vardır. Uygulama üç ay sürmüş ve her hafta öğrencinin sesli okuma becerisinin gelişimi değerlendirilmiştir. Uygulamanın sonunda öğrencinin, sesli okuma hatalarının %57 oranında azaldığı; kelime tanıma yüzdesinin, %90-'dan %98'e, anlama düzeyinin ise %15'ten % 85'e çıktığı tespit edilmiştir. Sesli okuma becerisinde ise önemli gelişmeler gözlenmiştir. Uygulama öncesi ve sonrası veriler incelendiğinde, yankılayıcı okuma yönteminin uygulanmasının ardından; kelime tanıma, anlama ve sesli okuma becerisinde fark edilir derecede ilerleme olduğu görülmüştür.
Introduction: The act of reading is still the most important and effective mean of learning and acquiring knowledge (Bamberger, 1990:3; Coşkun, 2003:101; Güneş, 2000:6; Özbay, 2007:1). However, the effect of this mean is possible with reading fluency. Reading fluency means the recognition of words in texts, reading texts with smooth expression and at a specific speed. Fluent reading, a necessary component of each reading training program, is a reading done by paying attention to the punctuation marks, emphasis and tones; and without making any returns, spelling, and unnecessary pauses which sounds conversational (Zutell and Rasinski, 1991). It is necessary to develop three basic skills to become fluent with reading: Fluency, comprehension and reading motivation (Güneş, 2007:92-93). In order for a fluent reading, firstly there should be no or scarcely any returns and word repeats made by students (Çaycı ve Demir, 2006:439; Gunning, 2005). A student with poor reading fluency skills reads slowly, interruptedly and without any stressing and toning. He/she spends much time to recognize words and can not pay attention to the meaning of the text. On the other side, students with the ability to read fluently can read words effortlessly and accurately, recognize words and sentences at first sight, exert minimum cognitive effort to recognize words paying attention to the pauses and tone of voice at the appropriate parts of the text (Rasinski, 2010). Purpose: The purpose of this research is to determine whether reading disability can be fixed using the echo reading method that is one of the fluent reading methods. It is considered that the applications on the echo reading technique used in this study will set an example for teachers and researchers who intent to conduct a new study on this issue. Method: This research is a case study which is a qualitative study model and also called as a situation study. Case study is seen as a distinctive approach used to seek answers to the scientific questions. In researches, case studies are used to identify and see the details that make up an event and to evaluate and develop possible explanations for an event (Gall, Borg and Gall, 1996; cit. Büyüköztürk, Çakmak, Akgün, Karadeniz, Demirel, 2009:267). Case study is a research method which handles an actual fact in its own reality (Yinn, 1984; cit. Yıldırım and Şimşek, 2008). In this study, the case analyzed is the training program to be attended by the students having reading difficulties, with echo reading method. "Wrong Analysis Inventory", "Reading Texts (1-4. Grade Level)" and "Voice Records of Student's Reading" is used as data collection tools. In the application that was made using the echo reading method for three months, total twelve evaluations were made by evaluating each week using the texts selected out of 1st-4th grade Turkish textbooks. The application was initiated with the first-grade texts; in the evaluation, the application was proceeded with the upper grade when the reading aloud skills of the student passed from the concern level to the teaching level. During the application, student's readings were recorded in an audio recording device. Analyses were made by listening to those records. Application was made with a fourth-grade primary school student. Although the student had no physical or mental impairment, or language and speech disorder, he had reading fluency problem (making very often mistakes while reading aloud, having a reading at the level of concern, etc.). In order to determine that student, a examination was made in five primary schools located at Usak city center. Upon the examinations, a fourth-grade male student who had the characteristics complying with the case researched was determined. Results and Suggestions: This research was carried out to determine effects of the echo reading method, a fluent reading method, on the reading skills of the fourth-grade primary school student. As a result of the three-month application, it was seen that student's mistakes made while reading aloud were reduced by 57%. It was also found that his word recognition percentage increased from 90% to 98% while the level of comprehension reached from 15% to 85%. His reading aloud skills reached to 98 % + (teaching level) from 90%- (the level of concern). When data are analyzed before and after the application, it is seen that there appeared a noticeable increase in his word recognition, comprehension and reading aloud skills after applying the echo reading method. Similarly to the results of this research, it is reported in the researches conducted by Mathes, Torgensen ve Allor (2001; Akt Rasinski, 2010), Ellis (2009) and Oddo, Barnett, Hawkins, Musti-Rao (2010) that echo reading method increases the comprehension and fluency skills of students. Prior to the research, it was determined that student who had difficulty in reading, the six types of mistakes in reading aloud including skipping, adding, misreading, repeating, self-correction and pausing. It was seen that the reading mistakes adversely affected reading and comprehension; and there appeared an increase in the word recognition, comprehension and reading aloud skills when reading mistakes increased. In a research conducted by Senel (1998) on reading difficulty, it is reported that students face with intermitting (pausing), repeating, new word derivation, incorrect reading difficulties respectively. The reading mistakes including pausing, repeating and misreading that were determined in the research are compatible with the results of the research made by Şenel. Based on the results of this research, suggestions produced for the field and application are as follows: • Contributions can be made to improve the echo reading method by applying it to the larger groups. • Students who have reading difficulty can be given texts of poems instead of reading passages in order to provide them with fluent reading skills. • Teachers should develop themselves on the methods of reading fluency. • When conducting reading studies with the students who have reading difficulty, they must be emotionally supported and encouraged. • Parents of the students who have reading difficulty should be informed about the echo reading methods and classroom studies should be also supported at home. • The way to minimize reading difficulties is to read too much. Therefore, reading activities should be frequently applied at school and at home. Students should be motivated to read.