ULUSLARARASI POLİTİKA YAKINSAMASI: KAVRAMSAL ÇERÇEVE

Politika yakınsaması, karşılaştırmalı kamu politikası alanının önemli çalışma konularından biridir. Ancak, söz konusu kavramın Türk kamu yönetimi literatüründe yeterince incelendiğini ve tartışıldığını söyleyebilmek mümkün değildir. Bu yüzden, en azından başlangıç olarak, politika yakınsamasının kavramsal açılımının yapılması gerekmektedir. Bu bağlamda, makale, politika yakınsaması kavramına bir “giriş” mahiyeti taşımaktadır. Bu makalenin amacı, politika yakınsamasını ve bu gelişmenin arkaplanında yer alan saikleri ortaya koyabilmektir. Bu doğrultuda, makalede, öncelikle politika yakınsaması kavramı tanımlanacak ve ilişkili olduğu diğer kavramlar ile arasındaki farklar ortaya koyulacaktır. Daha sonra, politika yakınsamasına sebep olan mekanizmalar sistematik bir şekilde ele alınacak ve son olarak, bu kavrama ilişkin yaklaşımlar açıklanmaya çalışılacaktır.

Uluslararası Politika Yakınsaması: Kavramsal Çerçeve

Kaynakça

ADSHEAD, Maura/WALL, Oliver (2003), “Policy Transfer and the Irish University Sector,”

ADSHEAD, Maura/MILLER, Michalle (eds.), Public Administration and Public Policy in Ireland: Theory and Methods (London: Routledge): 165-181.

BENNETT, C. (1991), “What Is Policy Convergence and What Causes It?,” British Journal of Political Science, 21/2: 215-233.

BÖRZEL, A. Tanja/RISSE, Thomas (2003), “Conceptualizing the Domestic Impact of Europe”, FEATHERSTONE, Kevin/RADAELLİ, Claudio Maria (eds.), The Politics of Europenization, (Oxford: Oxford University Pres): 57-80.

BUSCH, Per-Olof/JORGENS, Helge (2005), “The International Sources of Policy Convergence: Explaining The Spread of Environmental Policy Innovations,” Journal of European Public Policy, 12/5: 860-884.

DIMAGGIO, J. Paul/POWELL, Walter W. (1983), “The Iron Cage Revisited: Institutional Isomorphism and Collective Rationality in Organizational Fields,” American Sociological Review, 48/2: 147-160.

DOLOWITZ, David/MARSH, David (2000), “Learning From Abroad: The Role of Policy Transfer in Contemporary Policy Making,” Governance, 13/1: 5-24.

DOLOWITZ, David/MARSH, David (1996) “Who Learns What From Whom: A Review of the Policy Transfer Literature,” Political Studies, XLIV: 343-357.

DOLOWITZ, David (2000), “Policy Transfer: A New Framework of Policy Analysis,” DOLOWITZ, David/HULME, Rob/NELLIS, Mike/O’NEILL, Fiona (eds.), Policy Transfer and British Social Policy: Learning From USA (Buckingham: Open University Press): 9-37.

DREZNER, D. W. (2001), “Globalization and Policy Convergence,” International Studies Review, 3/1: 53-78.

DYSON, K. (2002), “Introduction: EMU as Integration, Europenization and Convergence,” DYSON, Kenneth (ed.), European State and Euro: Europenization Variation and Convergence (New York: Oxford University Press): 1-27.

EVANS, Mark/DAVIES, Jonathan (1999), “Understanding Policy Transfer: A Multi-Level, Multi Disciplinary Perspective,” Public Administration, 77/2: 361-385.

EYESTONE, R. (1977), “Confusion, Diffusion and Innovation,” The American Political Science Review, 71/2: 441-447.

FOX, Renata/FOX, John (2004), Organizational Discourse: A Language-Ideology-Power Perspective (Wesport: Praeger).

GRAY, V. (1973), “Innovation in the States: A Duffusion Study,” The American Political Science Review, 67/4: 1174-1185.

HOBERG, G. (2001), “Globalization and Policy Convergence: Symposium Overview,” Journal of Comparative Policy Analysis, 3/2: 127-132.

HOLZINGER, Katharina/KNILL, Christoph (2005), “Causes and Conditions of Cross-National Policy Convergence,” Journal of European Public Policy, 12/5: 775-796.

HULME, R. (2006), “The Role of Policy Transfer in Assessing the Impact of American Ideas on British Social Policy,” Global Social Policy, 6/2: 173-195.

KNILL, C. (2005), “Introduction: Cross-national Policy Convergence: Concepts, Approaches and Explanatory Factors,” Journal of European Public Policy, 12/5: 764-774

LENSCHOW, Andrea/LIEFFERINK, Duncan/VEENMAN, Sietske (2005), “When the Birds Sing. A Framework for Analysing Domestic Factors Behind Policy Convergence,” Journal of European Public Policy, 12/5: 797-816.

MARCUSSEN, M. (2005), “Central Banks on the Move,” Journal of European Public Policy, 12/5: 903-923.

MOSSBERGER, Karen/WOLMAN, Horald (2003), “Policy Transfer As a Form of Prospective Policy Evaluation: Challenges and Recommendations,” Public Admnistration Review, 63/4: 428-440.

NEDLEY, A. (1999), Policy Transfer and the Developing-Country Experience Gap: Taking a Southern Perspective, (www.york.ac.uk/depts/poli/news/sem3esrc/nedley.pdf), Erişim Tarihi: 24.02.2007.

RADAELLI, M. C. (2005), “Diffusion Without Convergence: How Political Context Shapes the Adoption of Regulatory Impact Assessment,” Journal of European Public Policy, 12/5: 924-943.

ROSE, R. (2005), Learning From Comparative Public Policy: A Practical Guide (Londra: Routledge).

ROSE, R. (1993), Lesson-Drawing In Public Policy (Chatham: Chatham House Publishers).

SEELIGER, R. (1996), “Conceptualizing and Researching Policy Convergence,” Policy Studies Journal, 24/2: 287-306.

SIMMONS, A. Beth/ELKINS, Zachary (2004), “The Globalization of Liberalization: Policy Diffusion in the International Political Economy,” The American Political Science Review, 98/1: 171-189.

STONE, D. (1999), “Learning Lessons and Transfering Policy Across Time, Space and Disciplines,” Politics, 19/1: 51-59.

STONE, D. (2000), Learning Lessons, Policy Transfer and International Diffusion of Policy Ideas (www.poli.haifa.ac.il), Erişim Tarihi: 23.03.2007.

STONE, D. (2004), “Transfer Agents and Global Networks in the Transnationalization of Policy,” Journal of European Public Policy, 11/3: 545-566.

STRANG, David/MEYER, W. John (1993), “Institutional Conditions for Diffusion,” Theory and Society, 22/4: 487-511.

UNGER, B. (1997), “Limits of Convergence and Globalization,” GUPTA, Satya Dev (ed.), The Political Economy of Globalzation (Boston: Kluwer Academic Publishers): 99-128.

WALKER, J. (1969), “The Diffusion of Innovations Among the American States,” The American Political Science Review, 63/3: 880-889.