Aristotle’s view of “being” is generally taken into consideration in relation with his account of substance. Whereas, “being” and “substance” are the concepts which are relative to each other, but not identical. For Aristotle, the problem of “being” is that which is, firstly concerned with what is primarily is (actual being) and what is accidentally is (accidental being) and secondly with “being as truth” and “being as a concept”. For this reason, the only sphere in which the concepts of “being” and “substance” are identical is the sphere of what is primarily is. In this sphere what is primarily is is what is substance, or what is substance is what is primarily is. First of all, we must distinguish this sphere from the rest. Secondly, while Aristotle divides what is primarily is into two fields, as what is sensible and what is intelligible, he also uses the expression of “what is primarily is” in two different senses. What is primarily is: a) individual things that can be said to be in virtue of themselves, and b) esence or what a thing is, the esence or substance of an individual. The first one is ontologically what is primarily is, and second one is epistemologically what is primarily is. Making these distinctions has a great importance not just for getting a true understanding of Aristotle’s view of “being” or for getting a true understanding and evaluation of Aristotle’s entire philosophy but also for understanding that how European philosophy, except a few philosophers, has lost its relation with life and this world.