A Qualitative Look into Gendered Entrepreneurship in Turkey

Öz People have started to question mainstream, supposedly gender-neutral, entrepreneurship definitions and perceptions with the confrontations of feminist perspective. Considering entrepreneurship as a gendered concept, in this study we handled gender as a lens in entrepreneurship. The purpose of this study is to portray gender specific characteristics and perceptions of entrepreneurship in Turkey. With this objective, we analyzed interviews with entrepreneurs in two Turkish entrepreneurship-focused business magazines and one popular business blog consisting of valuable startup and women entrepreneurs’ stories and interviews. We performed qualitative analysis on the content of these interviews to understand the perspectives of female and male entrepreneurs, and the differences between them as to their statements. We analyzed the choice of words and interviewees’ discourses. As to the findings, the most referred element of gendered entrepreneurship is family embeddedness based on stereotypical beliefs and norm systems. In addition, this finding shows how culturally embedded beliefs deeply effect women’s expectations/projections, barriers and needs concerning entrepreneurship. In Turkey, there is only a handful of studies concerning women entrepreneurship from the perspective of gender as a lens. Therefore, in this article, gender specific perceptions of entrepreneurship in Turkey as a developing and a masculine country were revealed. 

Kaynakça

Achtenhagen, L., & Welter, F. (2011). Surfing on the ironing board’ – the representation of women’s entrepreneurship in German newspapers, Entrepreneurship & Regional Development: An International Journal, 23, 9-10, pp. 763-786. Doi: 10.1080/08985626.2010.520338

Ahl, H. (2004). The scientific reproduction of gender inequality: A discourse analysis of research texts on Women’s entrepreneurship, Copenhagen: Copenhagen Business School Press

Ahl, H. (2006). Why research on women entrepreneurs needs new directions, Entrepreneurship, Theory and Practice, 30, 5, pp. 595-621. Doi: 10.1093/oxfordhb/9780199546992.003.0023

Ahl, H., & Nelson, T. (2010). Moving forward: Institutional perspectives on gender and entrepreneurship, International Journal of Gender and Entrepreneurship, 2, pp. 5–9. Doi: 10.1108/17566261011044259

Ahl, H., & Marlow, S. (2012). Exploring the dynamics of gender, feminism and entrepreneurship: advancing debate to escape a dead end? Organization, 19, 5, pp. 543-562. Doi: 10.1177/1350508412448695

Ahl, H., Berglund, K., Pettersson, K., & Tillmar, M. (2016). From feminism to femInc.ism: On the uneasy relationship between feminism, entrepreneurship and the Nordic welfare state, International Entrepreneurship and Management Journal, 12, pp. 369-392. Doi: 10.1007/s11365-014-0341-4

Al-Dajani, H., & Marlow, S. (2013). Empowerment and entrepreneurship: A theoretical framework, International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behavior and Research, 19, 5, pp. 503-524. Doi: 10.1108/IJEBR-10-2011-0138

Amoros, J.E., & Bosma, N. (2013). Global Entrepreneurship Monitor (GEM) 2013 Global Report: Fifteen Years of Assessing Entrepreneurship across the Globe. Global Entrepreneurship Research Association (GERA).

Ayre, M., Mills, J., & Gill, J. (2011). Two steps forward, one step back: Women in Professional engineering in Australia, International Journal of Gender, Science and Technology, 3, 2, pp. 293-312.

Baxter, J. (1997). Gender equality and participation in housework: A cross-national perspective, Journal of Comparative Family Studies, 28, pp. 220-247. Doi: 10.1177/S0038038500000389Seçkin-Halaç, Seçkin-Çelik / A Qualitative Look into Gendered Entrepreneurship in Turkey17Bögenhold, D., & Klinglmair, A. (2015). Female solo self-employment – Features of gendered entrepreneurship, International Review of Entrepreneurship, 13, 1, pp. 47-58.

Brush, C.G, DeBruin, A., & Welter, F. (2009). A gender-aware framework for women’s entrepreneurship, International Journal of Gender and Entrepreneurship, 1, 1, pp. 8-24. Doi: 10.1108/17566260910942318

Calas, M.B., & Smircich, L. (1989). Using the F word: Feminist theories and the social consequences of organizational research, Academy of Management Proceedings (August 1989 Meeting Abstract Supplement), pp. 355-359.

Carkoglu, A., & Kalaycioglu, E. (2012). Türkiye’de aile, iş ve toplumsal cinsiyet, Istanbul, Turkey: Koc ve Sabancı Universitesi Istanbul Politikalar Merkezi

Cetindamar, D., Gupta, V.K., Karadeniz, E.E., & Egrican, N. (2012). What the numbers tell: The impact of human, family and financial capital on women and men’s entry into entrepreneurship in Turkey, Entrepreneurship & Regional Development, 24, 1-2, pp. 29-51. Doi: 10.1080/08985626.2012.637348

Cromie, S. (1987). Motivations of aspiring male and female entrepreneurs, Journal of Occupational Behavior, 8, 3, pp. 251-261.

DeMartino, R., & Barbato, R. (2003). Differences between women and men MBA entrepreneurs: Exploring family flexibility and wealth creation as career motivators, Journal of Business Venturing, 18, pp. 815-832. Doi: 10.1016/S08839026(03)00003-X

Directorate for Women’s Status (1995). Small size entrepreneurship project, available at: http:// kadininstatusu.aile.gov.tr/projeler/tamamlanan-projeler/kucuk-girisimcilik-projesi (accessed 28 March 2017).

Ecevit, Y. (2007). Turkiye’de kadin girisimciligine elestirel bir yaklasim, Ankara, Turkey: International Labor Organization –ILO Publication)

Ecevit, Y., & Yuksel-Kaptanoglu, I. (2015). Research on women entrepreneurs. Project report. Istanbul, Turkey: Garanti Bankası Yayınları Entrepreneurship Strategy and Action Plan of Turkey 2015-2018, available at: http://www.resmigazete.gov.tr/eskiler/2015/07/20150701-9-1.pdf (accessed 20 February 2017).

Ekinsmyth, C. (2013). Managing the business of everyday life: The roles of space and place in mumpreneuership, International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behavior and Research, 19, 5, pp. 525-546. Doi: 10.1108/IJEBR-10-2011-0139

Fischer, E.M., Reuber, A.R., & Dyke, L.S. (1993). A theoretical overview and extension of research on sex, gender and entrepreneurship, Journal of Business Venturing, 8, pp. 151-168.

Foss, L. (2010). Research on entrepreneur networks: The case for a constructionist feminist theory perspective, International Journal of Gender and Entrepreneurship, 2, 1, pp. 83-102. Doi: 10.1108/17566261011026565

Garcia, P.O. (2017). The discourse on entrepreneurship of women from a gender perspective. Vivat Academia: Revista de Communicacion, 140, pp. 115-129. Doi: 10.15178/va.2017.140.115-129

Gul, S.S., & Altındal, Y. (2016). Turkiye’de kadın girisimciligin seruveni: Basari mumkun mu?”, Suleyman Demirel University Journal of Faculty of Economic and Administrative Sciences, 21, 4, pp. 1361-1377.

Henry, C., Foss, L., & Ahl, H. (2016). Gender and entrepreneurship research: A review of methodological approaches, International Small Business Journal, 34, 3, pp. 217-241. Doi: 10.1177/0266242614549779

Hurley, A.E. (1999). Incorporating feminist theories into sociological theories of entrepreneurship, Women in Management Review, 14, 2, pp. 54-62. Doi: 10.1108/09649429910261396

Jabeen, F., Katsioloudes, M.I., & Das, S.S. (2015). Is family the key? Exploring the motivation and success factors of female Emirati entrepreneurs, International Journal of Entrepreneurship and Small Business, 25, 4, pp. 375-394. Doi: 10.1504/IJESB.2015.070214

Jennings, J.E., & Brush, C.G. (2013). Research on women entrepreneurs: Challenges to (and from) the broader entrepreneurship literature? The Academy of Management Annals, 7, 1, pp. 663715. Doi: 10.1080/19416520.2013.782190

Kabasakal, H., Aycan, Z. Başkurt, A. B., Varnalı, R., & Erdoğan, I. (2016). Girişimcilikte başarı kriterleri ve temel başarı faktörleri: Kadın-erkek Karşılaştırması. In Ç. Kağıtçıbaşı, H. Şimga, D. Barlas, M. Önok, Z. G. Göker (Eds.) Kadın odaklı, (pp. 83-115). İstanbul: Koç Üniversitesi Yayınları.

Kelly, D.J., Brush, C.G, Greene, P.G., & Litovsky, Y. (2013). Global Entrepreneurship Monitor (GEM) 2013 Women’s Report, Global Entrepreneurship Research Association (GERA)

Kelly, D.J., Brush, C.G, Greene, P., Herrington, M., Ali, A., & Kew, P. (2015). Global Entrepreneurship Monitor (GEM) 2015 Women’s Special Report, Global Entrepreneurship Research Association (GERA).

Korunka, C., Kessler, A., Frank, H., & Lueger, M. (2011). Conditions for growth in one-person startups: A longitudinal study spanning eight years, Psicothema, 23, 3, pp. 446-452.

Marlow, S., Hart, M., Levie, J., & Shamsul, M.K. (2012). Women in enterprise: A different perspective, RBS Group Report, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow, available at: http://www.rbs.com/content/ dam/rbs/Documents/Sustainability/Women-in-Enterprise.pdf (accessed 20 March 2017).

Maden, C. (2015). A gendered lens on entrepreneurship: Women entrepreneurship in Turkey, Gender in Management: An International Journal, 30, 4, pp. 312-331. Doi: 10.1108/GM-11-2013-0131

Martin, L., Wright, L, Beaven, Z., & Matlay, H. (2015). An unusual job for a woman? Female entrepreneurs in scientific, engineering and technology sectors, International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behavior & Research, 21, 4, pp. 539556. Doi: 10.1108/IJEBR-08-2011-0095

Matsa, D.A., & Miller, A.R. (2014). Workforce reductions at women- owned businesses in the United States, ILR Review, 67, 2, pp. 422-452.

Mehtap, S., Ozmenekse, L., & Caputa, A. (2019). “I’m a stay at home businesswoman”: An insight into informal entrepreneurship in Jordan, Journal of Entrepreneurship in Emerging Economies, 11, 1, pp. 44-65. Doi: 10.1108/JEEE-10-2017-0080

Metin, S., & Kariman, R.A. (2013). TBMM Kadin Erkek Firsat Esitligi Komisyonu Yayinlari/ The Grand National Assembly of Turkey – Women and Men Equal Opportunities Commission Publications, Number: 12, available at: http://www. tbmm.gov.tr/komisyon/kefe/docs/komisyon_ raporu_2014_1.pdf (accessed 15 December 2014).

Mills, J.E. (2011). Reflections on the past, present and future of women in engineering, Australasian Journal of Engineering Education, 17, 3, pp. 139-146.

Orlandi, L.B. (2017). Am i an entrepreneur? Identity struggle in the contemporary women entrepreneurship discourse, Contemporary Economics, 11, 4, pp. 487-498. Doi: 10.1007/s11365-015-0364-5

Ozkazanc-Pan, B. (2015). Secular and Islamic feminist entrepreneurship in Turkey, International Journal of Gender and Entrepreneurship, 7, 1, pp. 45-65. Doi: 10.1108/IJGE-03-2014-0006

Poggesi, S., Mari, M., & DeVita, L. (2016). What’s new in female entrepreneurship research? Answers from the literature, International Entrepreneurship and Management Journal, 12, pp. 735-765.

Rehman, S., & Roomi, M. A. (2012). Gender and work-life balance: A phenomenological study of women entrepreneurs in Pakistan, Journal of Small Business and Enterprise Development, 19, 2, pp. 209-228. Doi: 10.1108/14626001211223865

Robb, A.M. & Watson, J. (2012). Gender differences in firm performance: Evidence from new ventures in the United States, Journal of Business Venturing, 27, pp. 544-558. Doi: 10.1016/j. jbusvent.2011.10.002

Santos, G., Silva, R., Rodrigues, R.G., Marques, C., & Leal, C. (2017). Nascent entrepreneurs’ motivations in european economies: A gender approach using GEM data, Journal of Global Marketing, 30, 3, pp. 122-137. Doi: 10.1080/08911762.2017.1302542

Schrör, H. (2006). The profile of successful entrepreneur (EUROSTAT report), available at: http://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/ documents/3433488/5443129/KS-NP-06029-EN.PDF/22202ac8-b984-4b87-9f727e774e80a1ac?version=1.0 (accessed 20 February 2017).

Sexton, D.L., & Bowman-Upton, N. (1990). Female and male entrepreneurs: psychological characteristics and their role in gender-related discrimination, Journal of Business Venturing, 5, 1, pp. 29-36. Doi: 10.1016/0883-9026(90)90024

Shinnar R.S., Giacomin, O., & Janssen, F. (2012). Entrepreneurial perceptions and intentions: The role of gender and culture, Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, May, pp. 465-493. Doi: 10.1111/j.1540-6520.2012.00509.x

Shmailan, A.B. (2016). Compare the Characteristics of Male and Female Entrepreneurs as Explorative Study. Journal of Entrepreneurship, Organization and Managment, 5, 4, pp. 1-7. Doi: 10.4172/2169-026X.1000203

Simmons, S.A., Wiklund, J., Levie, J., Bradley, S.W., & Suny, S.A. (2018). Gender gaps and reentry into entrepreneurial ecosystems after business failure, Small Business Economics. Doi: 10.1007/s11187-018-9998-3

Smith, R. (2014). Assessing the contribution of the ‘theory of matriarchy’ to the entrepreneurship and family business literatures, International Journal of Gender and Entrepreneurship, 6, 3, pp. 255-275. Doi: 10.1108/ IJGE-06-2011-0061

Sonmez, A., & Toksoy, A. (2014). Turkiye’de girisimcilik ve Turk girisimci profili uzerine bir analiz, Yönetim ve Ekonomi, 21, 2, pp. 41-58.

Sperber, S., & Linder, C. (2018). Gender-specifics in start-up strategies and the role of the entrepreneurial ecosystem, Small Business Economics, pp. 1-14. Doi: 10.1007/s11187-018-9999-2

Stead, V. (2017). Belonging and women entrepreneurs: Women’s navigation of gendered assumptions in entrepreneurial practice, International Small Business Journal, 35, 1, pp. 61–77.

Stevenson, L. (1990). Some methodological problems associated with researching women entrepreneurs, Journal of Business Ethics, 9, 4-5, pp. 439-446.

TÜİK (2013). Girişimcilik, 2010, Haber Bülteni 1 Mart 2013. Number 13664, available at http:// www.tuik.gov.tr/HbPrint.do?id=13664 (accessed 27 February 2019).

TÜİK (2015). 2015 Zaman kullanim anketi sonuclari, Haber Bülteni 2015, Number: 18627, available at: http://www.tuik.gov.tr/PreHaberBultenleri.do?id=18627 (accessed 20 February 2017).

TÜİK (2018). Girisimcilik 2014-2016, Haber Bülteni 2018 Number: 27845, available at: http://tuik. gov.tr/PreTablo.do?alt_id=1034 (accessed 27 February 2019).

Tuzun, I.K., & Takay, B.A. (2017). Patterns of female entrepreneurial activities in Turkey, Gender in Management: An International Journal, 32, 3, pp. 166-182. Doi: 10.1108/GM-05-2016-0102

Ufuk, H., & Ozgen, O. (2001). Interaction between the business and family lives of women entrepreneurs in Turkey, Journal of Business Ethics, 31, 2, pp. 95-106. Doi: 10.1023/A:1010712023858

Yılmaz, E., Ozdemir, G., & Oraman, Y. (2012). Women entrepreneurs: Their problems and entrepreneurial ideas, African Journal of Business Management, 6, 26, pp. 7896-7904. Doi: 10.5897/AJBM12.081

World Economic Forum Gender Gap Report, (2018), available at: http://www3.weforum.org/ docs/WEF_GGGR_2018.pdf (accessed 27 February 2019).