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Education and political leaders worldwide are increasingly placing emphasis on developing scientific literacy. This also is the case in Thailand with science education influenced by educational reform in 1999, in which the goals of science education are shaped by the notion of scientific literacy. Thai science education emphasizes the scientific knowledge, the nature of science, and the relationship between science technology and society. Although the school science curriculum features scientific literacy, Thai science education research, articles, national tests, and teaching and learning emphasize scientific achievement with little concern about science as a way of knowing. However, some attempts at developing scientific literacy have been made recently. Some school science curricula and teaching and learning has tried to organize science learning emphasizing the relationship between science, technology and society based on the Thai context. Such cases seek to develop students' scientific literacy through local wisdom; specifically, King Bhumibol Adulyadej's philosophy of sufficiency economy, moral infusion, and the Buddhism way of life. This paper considers interpretations of the term scientific literacy in Thailand, and examines the implications of this for science education.