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A uniform and universal understanding of science is an invalid precept, especially for the social sciences and humanities. Hence, the modern version of psychology is but a reductionist, limited and abstract description of human reality in general. One of the most recent achievements in psychology is the recognition that every culture has a special frame of meaning and that individuals develop their identities and personalities accordingly. Therefore, to understand the spiritual world of human beings and their behaviors, a new intercultural per-spective is needed. This need also applies to the field of psychology of religion, which is currently based upon the so called Judeo-Christian tradition. While the issues addressed, theories and concepts developed and introduced, have considerable relevance for the individuals within the mentioned tradition, they say very little, if any, about the religious structure of the individuals outside it. For that reason, there is urgent need in research conducted in the field of psychology of religion in Turkey to consider the basic beliefs of Islam, and social, cultural, historical, and contemporary developments within it.