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The purpose of the study was to investigate the effect of between class ability grouping on 7th grade students’ academic achievement on the unit “If there were no pressure?” in Science and Technology Education. The study was conducted in the second semester of 2006-2007 academic year within a primary school with between class ability grouping in Aydın. The sample of the study is made of total 84 students among the 7th grades from the selected school which has between class ability grouping. “Science Education achievement test” developed by the researchers was used for data collection. Co-variance analysis was performed for analyzing the data gathered in the study. Significant differences were found among the ability grouping classes with regard to achievement test scores (p<0.05). The difference was observed between high-medium classes, high-low classes and mediumlow classes. While significant difference was not found among achievement scores of the female students in ability grouping classes (p>0.05), this was reverse for the male students (significant difference was found among the male students with regard to achievement test scores).