ABD İşgücü Piyasasında Ücretler ve Göç ilişkisi: Neoklasik Göç Teorisi

Göçmenler genellikle güçlü gelir ve emek talebine sahip alanlara gittikçe, ücret ve istihdamdaki değişikliklerin hem nedeni hem de sonucu olabilmektedirler. Geçmişten bu yana en çok göç alan bölgelerin başında gelen ABD’de ise göçmen sayısı hızla artmaktadır. Dolayısıyla bu büyük göç akışının işgücü piyasası üzerindeki fırsatlarını ve tehditlerini çeşitli açılardan incelemek önemlidir. Bu anlamda bu çalışmada, ABD’de uluslararası göçün işgücü piyasası üzerindeki ekonomik etkilerini ortaya koymak amaçlanmıştır. Çalışmada, Toda-Yamamoto (1995) nedensellik testi uygulanmıştır. Bu prosedür, MWALD testinin problemlerini ortadan kaldırmakta ve standart Granger nedensellik testiyle ilgili problemleri önlemektedir. Bu bakımdan güçlü bir test prosedürü içeren Toda-Yamamoto nedensellik testi sonuçları, seriler arasında iki yönlü bir nedensellik ilişkisinin varlığına işaret etmektedir. Diğer bir deyişle, ücretler ve göç arasında iki yönlü nedensel bir ilişkinin varlığı tespit edilmiştir. Uluslararası göçün işgücü piyasaları üzerindeki etkisi incelendiğinde, göçlerin hedef ülkede ücret düzeyinde bir değişmeye neden olduğu anlaşılmaktadır. Yapılan bu çalışma göç teorisini ilgilendiren diğer çalışmalarla doğrudan ilgilidir.  

Wages and Migration Relation in the US Labor Market: Neoclassical Migration Theory

As migrants generally go to areas with strong income and labor demand, they can be both the cause and the result of changes in wages and employment. The number of immigrants has been increased rapidly in the USA, which can be considered as the one of the most immigrated regions ever. Therefore, it is important to examine the opportunities and threats of this large migration flow on the labor market from various perspectives. To this end, this study examines the economic impacts of international migration on the labor market in the US. The study utilizes the Toda-Yamamoto (1995) causality approach. This procedure eliminates the problems caused by MWALD test and avoids the problems associated with the standard Granger causality. According to the results of the Toda-Yamamoto causality test which includes a powerful test procedure, there exists bi-directional causality between series under investigation. In other words, wages and migration causes each other. When the impact of international migration on labor markets is examined, it is understood that migrations cause a change in the wage level in the target country. This study is directly related to other studies in line with the migration theory.

Kaynakça

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