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Any fundamental change in a society has a deep effect on the structure and composition of employment. In the era of knowledge society, this structural transformation brings about the creation of new jobs and the extinction of certain traditional jobs. An analysis of employment by occupations may show the new jobs created by new technologies and industries, and also may reveal labour market risks related with non-decent jobs.In this paper an analysis of occupational composition of employment in the EU15 and Turkey has been made for the purpose of highlighting the dual increase in both skilled and non-skilled jobs created by the ongoing structural changes; and labour market risks related with low-skilled occupations. The study is supported with empirical data, and it concludes that people having non-decent jobs in services and elementary jobs are in need of social protection; and that new jobs can be generated in certain subgroups.