Influence of Self-Esteem and Extrinsic Goal Orientation on Perceived Trustworthiness by Moderation of Length of Service
Influence of Self-Esteem and Extrinsic Goal Orientation on Perceived Trustworthiness by Moderation of Length of Service
This study has been conducted to find out if the trustee’s length of service has a moderator effect on the level of influence that self-esteem and extrinsic goal orientation have on the co-workers’ perceptions of the trustee’s trustworthiness. Research on the predictors of trust revolves around the frameworks of ultimate causation, ontogenic causation and proximate causation. This study focuses on trustee-related predictors in the formation of perceived trustworthiness, thus falling under the category of proximate causation studies. Trustworthiness is a trait with a multidimensional structure. The methods hereby applied have not allowed for a detailed assessment of each and every dimension, therefore integrity has been chosen as the main focus, since it is the most widely investigated dimension of trustworthiness. A field research was conducted with 80 software engineers employed in a software company that is horizontally aligned. Each participant, one-by-one, was assessed on how trustworthy they find each of their co-workers. Participants were also assessed for their levels of self-esteem and extrinsic goal orientation. Two data sets were collected from each participant; as truster level of trust one holds for each co-worker , and as trustee selfesteem, extrinsic goals, length of service ; then these data were matched. The results indicate that the length of service has a moderation effect. Self-esteem is found to have a positive influence on the trustee’s perceived trustworthiness in cases where the length of service is relatively short. As the length of service increases, extrinsic goal orientation turns out to have a negative impact on the perceived trustworthiness of the trustee.
Aiken, L. S. & S. G. West (1991), Multiple regression: Testing and Interpreting Interactions, Sage Publications, Thousand Oaks, CA.
Baumeister, R. F., B. J. Bushman & W. K. Campbell (2000), “Self-Esteem, Narcissism, and Aggression: Does Violence Result from Low Self-Esteem or from Threatened Egotism?”, Current Directions in Psychological Science, Volume: 9, February, p.26– 29.
Borgatti, S. P., A. Mehra, D. J. Brass & G. Labianca (2009), “Network Analysis in the Social Sciences”, Science, Volume: 323, p.892-895.
Bowen, M. (1976), “Theory and Practice in Psychotherapy”, Family Therapy: Theory and Practice (p.42–90), Editor: P. J. Guerin, Gardner Press, New York.
Bowlby, J. (1969), Attachment and Loss: Volume 1. Attachment, Basic Books, New York.
Bowlby, J. (1973), Attachment and Loss: Volume 2. Separation: Anxiety and Anger, Basic Books, New York.
Butler, J. K. & R. S. Cantrell (1984), “A Behavioural Decision Theory Approach to Modelling Dyadic Trust in Superiors and Subordinates”, Psychological Reports, Volume: 55, p.19-28.
Chun, R. & G. Davies (2010), “The Effect of Merger on Employee Views of Corporate Reputation: Time and Space Dependent Theory”, Industrial Marketing Management, Volume: 39, Issue: 5, p.721-727.
Colquitt, J. A., B. A. Scott & J. A. LePine (2007), “Trust, Trustworthiness, and Trust Propensity: A Meta-Analytic Test of Their Unique Relationships with Risk Taking and Job Performance”, Journal of Applied Psychology, Volume: 92, Issue: 4, p.909–927.
Cook, K. S. & R. M. Cooper (2003), “Experimental Studies of Cooperation, Trust, and Social Exchange”, Trust and Reciprocity: Interdisciplinary Lessons from Experimental Research (p.209–244), Editors: E. Ostrom & J. Walke, Russell Sage, New York.
Crocker, J. & R. Luhtanen (2003), “Level of Self-Esteem and Contingencies of Self-Worth: Unique Effects on Academic, Social, and Financial Problems in College Students”, Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Volume: 29, p.701–712.
Crowne, D. P. & D. Marlowe (1960), “A New Scale of Social Desirability Independent of Psychopathology”, Journal of Consulting Psychology, Volume: 24, p.349-354.
Deci, E. L. & R. M. Ryan (2000), “The “What” and “Why” of Goal Pursuits: Human Needs and the Self-Determination of Behavior”, Psychological Inquiry, Volume: 11, p.227–268.
Deckop, J. R., R. A. Giacalone & C. L. Jurkiewicz (2015), “Materialism and Workplace Behaviors: Does Wanting More Result in Less?”, Social Indicators Research, Volume: 121, Issue: 3, p.787-803.
Deutsch, M. (1973), The Resolution of Conflict, Yale University Press, New Haven, CT.
DeVito, J. A. (2015), The Interpersonal Communication Book, 13th edition, Pearson, New Jersey.
Dietz, G. & D. den Hartog (2006), “Measuring Trust in Organisations”, Personnel Review, Volume: 35, Issue: 5, p.557-588.
Dirks, K. T. & D. P. Skarlicki (2009), “The Relationship Between Being Perceived as Trustworthy by Coworkers and Individual Performance”, Journal of Management, Volume: 35, Issue: 1, p.136-157.
Dolgin, K. G., L. Meyer & J. Schwartz (1991), “Efects of Gender, Target’s Gender, Topic, and Self-Esteem on Disclosure to Best and Middling Friends”, Sex Roles, Volume: 25, p.311–329.
Dubrin, A. J. (2011), Impression Management in the Workplace: Research, Theory and Practice, Routledge, New York.
Ellis, R. A. & M. S. Taylor (1983), “Role of Self-Esteem within the Job Search Process”, Journal of Applied Psychology, Volume: 68, p.632–640.
Fehr, B. (1988), “Prototype Analysis of the Concepts of Love and Commitment”, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, Volume: 55, p.557–579.
Fletcher, G. J. O., J. A. Simpson & G. Thomas (2000), “Ideals, Perceptions, and Evaluations in Early Relationship Development”, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, Volume: 79, p.933–940.
Gabarro, J. J. (1978), “The Development of Trust, Influence, and Expectations”, Interpersonal Behaviors: Communication and Understanding in Relationships (p.290–303), Editors: A. G. Athos & J. J. Gabarro, Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ.
George, J. M. & G. R. Jones (2012), Understanding and Managing Organizational Behavior, 6th edition, Prentice Hall, New Jersey.
Gigerenzer, G. (2008), “Why Heuristics Work”, Perspectives on Psychological Science, Volume: 3, p.20-29.
Gillespie, N. (2012), “Measuring Trust in Organizational Contexts: An Overview of Survey- Based Measures”, Handbook of Research Methods on Trust (p.175-188), Editors: F. Lyon, G. Möllering & M. N. K. Saunders, Edward Elgar, Cheltenham, UK.
Giner-Sorolla, R. & P. Espinosa (2011), “Social Cuing of Guilt by Anger and of Shame by Disgust”, Psychological Science, Volume: 22, p.49-53.
Gintis, H. (2003), “The Hitchhiker’s Guide to Altruism: Gene–Culture Co-Evolution and the Internalization of Norms”, Journal of Theoretical Biology, Volume: 220, p.407–418.
Grouzet, F. M. E., T. Kasser, A. Ahuvia, J. M. F. Dols, Y. Kim, S. Lau et al. (2005), “The Structure of Goal Contents Across 15 Cultures”, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, Volume: 89, p.800–816.
Grant, H. & L. Gelety (2009), “Goal Content Theories: Why Differences in What We Are Striving for Matter”, The Psychology of Goals (p.77-97), Editors: G. B. Moskowitz & H. Grant, The Guilford Press, New York.
Guendelman, M. D., S. Cheryan & B. Monin (2011), “Fitting in but Getting Fat: Identity Threat and Dietary Choices among U.S. Immigrant Groups”, Psychological Science, Volume: 22, p.959-967.
Hamilton, W. D. (1964), “The Genetical Evolution of Social Behavior”, Journal of Theoretical Biology, Volume: 7, p.1–52.
Hardin, R. (2002), Trust and Trustworthiness. Russell Sage Foundation, New York.
Hardin, R. (2003), “Gaming Trust”, Trust and Reciprocity: Interdisciplinary Lessons from Experimental Research (p.80–101). Editors: E. Ostrom & J. Walker, Russell Sage, New York.
Hart, P. S. (2011), “One or Many?: The Influence of Episodic and Thematic Climate Change Frames on Policy Preferences and Individual Change Behavior”, Science Communication, Volume: 33, p.28-51.
Hayes, A. F. (2013), An Introduction to Mediation, Moderation, and Conditional Process Analysis: A Regression-Based Approach, Guilford Press, New York.
Henrich, J. & R. Boyd (2001), “Why People Punish Defectors - Weak Conformist Transmission Can Stabilize Costly Enforcement of Norms in Cooperative Dilemmas”, Journal of Theoretical Biology, Volume: 208, p.79–89.
Hewitt, J. P. (1998), The Myth of Self-Esteem: Finding Happiness and Solving Problems in America, St. Martin’s Press, New York.
Holmes, J. G., & J. K. Rempel (1989), “Trust in Close Relationships”, Close Relationships (p.187–220), Editor: C. Hendrick, Sage, Newbury Park, CA.
Kaplan H. B. (2002), “Self-Esteem and Deviant Behavior”, Extending Self-Esteem Research: Sociological and Psychological Currents (p.375-399), Editors: T. J. Owens, S. Stryker & N. Goodman, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, MA.
Kasser, T. & R. M. Ryan (1996), “Further Examining the American Dream: Differential Correlates of Intrinsic and Extrinsic Goals”, Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Volume: 22, p.280–287.
Kasser, T. (2002), The High Price of Materialism, MIT Press, Cambridge, MA.
Kasser, T., R. M. Ryan, C. E. Couchman & K. M. Sheldon (2004), “Materialistic Values: Their Causes and Consequences”, Psychology and Consumer Culture: The Struggle for a Good Life in a Materialistic World (pp. 11–28), Editors: T. Kasser & A. D. Kanner, American Psychological Association, Washington, DC.
Kayış, A. (2010), “Güvenilirlik Analizi”, SPSS Uygulamalı Çok Değişkenli İstatistik Teknikleri, 5th edition, Editor: Ş. Kalaycı, Asil Yayın Dağıtım, Ankara.
Kelley, H. H., J. G. Holmes, N. L. Kerr, H. T. Reis, C. E. Rusbult & P. A. M. Van Lange (2003), An Atlas of Interpersonal Situations, Cambridge University Press, New York.
Kim, J. O. & C. W. Mueller (1976), “Standardized and Unstandardized Coefficients in Causal Analysis: An Expository Note”, Sociological Methods and Research, Volume: 4, Issue: 4, p.423-438.
Krackhardt, D., & M. Kilduff (1999), “Whether Close or Far: Social Distance Effects on Perceived Balance in Friendship Networks”, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, Volume: 76, Issue: 5, p.770-782.
Krumbhuber, E., A. S. R. Manstead, D. P. Cosker, A. D. Marshall, P. L. Rosin & A. Kappas (2007), “Facial Dynamics as Indicators of Trustworthiness and Cooperative Behaviour”, Emotion, Volume: 7, Issue: 4, p.730–735.
Larzelere, R. E. & T. L. Huston (1980), “The Dyadic Trust Scale: Toward Understanding Interpersonal Trust in Close Relationships”, Journal of Marriage and the Family, Vollume: 42, p.595–604.
Lau, D. C., L. W. Lam & S. S. Wen (2014), “Examining the Effects of Feeling Trusted by Supervisors in the Workplace: A Self-Evaluative Perspective”, Journal of Organizational Behavior, Voluem: 35, p.112-127.
Lewicki, R. J. & B. B. Bunker (1996), “Developing and maintaining trust in work relationships”, Trust in Organizations: Frontiers of Theory and Research (p.114-139), Editors: R. M. Kramer & T. R. Tyler, Sage, Thousand Oaks, CA.
Lewicki, R. J., D. J. McAllister & R. J. Bies (1998), “Trust and Distrust: New Relationships and Realities”, Academy of Management Review, Volume: 23, p.438–458.
Mayer, R. C. & J. H. Davis (1999), “The Effect of the Performance Appraisal System on Trust for Management: A Field Quasi-Experiment”, Journal of Applied Psychology, Volume: 84, Issue: 1, p.123-136.
Mayer, R. C., J. H. Davis & F. D. Schoorman (1995), “An Integrative Model of Organizational Trust”, Academy of Management Review, Volume: 20, p.709 –734.
McEvily, B. & M. Tortoriello (2011), “Measuring Trust in Organisational Research: Review and Recommendations”, Journal of Trust Research, Volume: 1, Issue: 1, p.23–63.
McHoskey, J. W. (1999), “Machiavellianism, Intrinsic versus Extrinsic Goals, and Social Interest: A Self-Determination Theory Analysis”, Motivation and Emotion, Volume: 23, Issue:4, p.267-283.
Miller, P. J. E., & J. K. Rempel (2004), “Trust and Partner-Enhancing Attributions in Close Relationships”, Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Volume: 30, p.695–705.
Mishra, A. K. (1996), “Organizational Responses to Crisis: The Centrality of Trust”, Trust in Organisations: Frontiers of Theory and Research (p.261-87), Editors: R. M. Kramer & T. R. Tyler, Sage, Thousand Oaks, CA.
Niebuhr, R. E., & K. R. Jr Davis (1984), “Self-Esteem: Relationship with Leader Behavior Perceptions as Moderated by the Duration of the Superior-Subordinate Dyad Association”, Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Volume: 10, Issue: 1, p.51- 59.
Ostrom, E. & J. Walker (2003), “Introduction”, Trust and Reciprocity: Interdisciplinary Lessons from Experimental Research (p.3–19), Editors: E. Ostrom & J. Walker, Russell Sage, New York.
Rekabdar, B. (2015), Trust in the Workplace: The Importance of an Employee’s Perspective. Unpublished Master Thesis. University of Windsor, Ontario, Canada.
Roberts, B. W. & R. W. Robins (2000), “Broad Dispositions, Broad Aspirations: The Intersection of Personality Traits and Major Life Goals”, Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Volume: 26, p.1284–1296.
Rosenberg, M. (1965), Society and the Adolescent Self-Image, Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ.
Rosenberg, M. (1990), “The Self-Concept: Social Product and Social Force”, Social Psychology: Sociological Perspectives (p.593-624), Editors: M. Rosenberg & R. H. Turner, Transaction Publishers, New Brunswick.
Rosenberg, M. & R. G. Simmons (1972), Black and White Self-Esteem, American Sociological Association, Washington, DC.
Salamon, S. D. & S. L. Robinson (2008), “Trust That Binds: The Impact of Collective Felt Trust on Organizational Performance”, Journal of Applied Psychology, Volume: 93, p.593- 601.
Schlenker, B. R. (1975), “Self-Presentation: Managing the Impression of Consistency When Reality Interferes with Self-Enhancement”, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, Volume: 32, p.1030-1037.
Simpson, J. A. (2007), “Foundations of Interpersonal Trust”, Social Psychology: Handbook of Basic Principles (p.587-607), Editors: A. W. Kruglanski & E. T. Higgins, The Guilford Press, New York.
Solomon, R. C., & F. Flores (2003), Building Trust: In Business, Politics, Relationships, and Life, Oxford University Press, New York.
Trivers, R. (1971), “The Evolution of Reciprocal Altruism”, Quarterly Review of Biology, Volume: 46, p.35–57.
Todorov, A., S. G. Baron & N. N. Oosterhof (2008), “Evaluating Face Trustworthiness: A Model Based Approach”. Soc. Cogn. Affect. Neuroscience, Volume: 3, Issue: 2, p.119–127.
Vansteenkiste, M., J. Simons, W. Lens, K. M. Sheldon & E. L. Deci (2004), “Motivating Learning, Performance, and Persistence: The Synergistic Effects of Intrinsic Goal Contents and Autonomy-Supportive Contexts”. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, Volume: 87, p246–260.
Zak, P. (2003), “Oxytocin May Help Humans Bond”, Annual Meeting of the Society for Neuroscience, November, New Orleans, LA.