KÜMELENMELERDE YAPISAL DEĞİŞİM VE REKABET GÜCÜ

Öz Kitle üretim sistemlerinden esnek üretim sistemlerine geçişle birlikte kümelenmeler, bölgesel gelişme teorilerinin en önemli çalışma alanı haline gelmiştir. Geçmişte endüstriyel bölgeler bağlamında ele alınan firma yığılmaları, günümüzde bilgi ve yenilikçilik yayılmalarının ve rekabet gücünün en önemli kaynağı olarak görülen kümelenme yaklaşımına doğru yer değiştirmiştir. Dolayısıyla küresel rekabetin şiddetlendiği günümüzde, kümelenmeler rekabetin dikkat çekici bir unsuru olarak karşımıza çıkmaktadır. Bu düzlemde faaliyet gösteren kümelenmelerin bazıları gelişirken bazıları ise yok olmaktadır. Bu makalede, kümelenmenin tarihsel gelişimi de göz önünde bulundurularak başarılı kümelenme örneklerinin özellikleri konusuna açıklık getirilmeye çalışılmaktadır. Ayrıca uzun vadede kümelenmelerin ekonomik gelişme ve bölgesel kalkınmada bir strateji olarak değerlendirilip değerlendirilemeyeceği sorusuna da yanıt aramaktadır. Along with the transition from the mass production methods to the flexible production methods clusterings have become the most important research field of the regional development theories. Agglomeration of firms which have been examined within the context of industrial districts in the past has now shifted towards the clustering approach, currently considered as the significant source of the propagation of the information and renovation as well as the competition power. Therefore the clusterings appears to be a significant element of the competition where the global competition intensifies. Whereas a number of clusterings operating in this level flourish, the others vanish. In this article, it has been aimed to clarify the issue of successful clustering examples by also taking the historical evolution of the clustering into consideration. Besides, this article tries to find a adequate response to the question whether the clusterings can be considered as a strategy of economical progress en regional development over the long term.

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