Mapping out Teacher Educators’ Conceptions of Teaching: Composing Phenomenographic Argument

This study aims to describe the concepts of teacher educators about teaching. The research design of this study is phenomenography. The participants were 37 teacher educators. The concepts of teacher educators regarding the teaching phenomenon were grouped under five categories. These are “teaching is the transfer of knowledge”, “teaching as the arbitrary elimination of the teacher or learner from the system”, “teaching is to criticize and evaluate the arguments of others”, “teaching as collective research process” and “teaching as creating pedagogical content knowledge”. The most important point in this context is the level of awareness of teacher educators about teaching concepts. In this sense, the most concrete suggestion is that teacher educators should expand their teaching concepts by being included in professional development programs.

Öğretmen Eğitimcilerinin Öğretme Kavramlarının Haritalandırılması: Fenomenografik Argüman Oluşturmak

Bu çalışma öğretmen eğitimcilerinin öğretime yönelik kavramlarını betimlemeyi amaçlamaktadır. Bu çalışmanın araştırma deseni fenomenografidir. Katılımcılar 37 öğretmen eğitimcisidir. Öğretmen eğitimcilerinin öğretim olgusuna yönelik kavramları beş kategori altında toplanmıştır. Bunlar şu şekildedir: “öğretim bilginin transferidir”, “öğretmenin ya da öğrenenin sistemden keyfi olarak elemine edilmesi olarak öğretim”, “öğretim diğerlerinin argümanlarını eleştirmek ve değerlendirmektir”, “öğretim kolektif bir araştırma sürecidir”, “öğretim bir pedagojik alan bilgisi yaratma sürecidir”. Bu bağlamda öne çıkan en önemli nokta öğretmen eğitimcilerinin öğretim kavramlarına yönelik farkındalıklarının ne düzeyde olduğudur. Bu anlamda en somut öneri öğretmen eğitimcilerinin profesyonel mesleki gelişim programlarına dahil olarak öğretim kavramlarını genişletmeleridir.

Kaynakça

Åkerlind, G. S. (2003). Growing and developing as a university teacher-variation in meaning. Studies in Higher Education, 28, 375-390.

Åkerlind, G. S. (2008). A phenomenographic approach to developing academics’ understanding of the nature of teaching and learning. Teaching in Higher Education, 13(6), 633-644.

Åkerlind, G. S. (2012). Variation and commonality in phenom- enographic research methods. Higher Education Research & Development, 31(1), 115-127.

Arslanoglu, Ö. (2015). An examination of how the theory-practice relationship of pedagogy courses is conceived and perceived by the participants, and how management of education systems and faculties can enhance the quality of teacher education in Turkey (Unpublished Doctoral Dissertation). Durham University, London, United Kingdom.

Bain, J. D., McNaught, C., Mills, C., & Lueckenhausen, G. (1998). Describing computer facilitated learning environments in higher education. Learning Environments Research, 1, 163- 180.

Berry, M. (1981). Systemic linguistics and discourse analysis: A multi-layered approach to exchange structure. In M. Coulthard & M. Montgomery (Eds), Studies in discourse analysis (pp. 120-145). London: Routledge and Kegan Paul.

Berry, A. (2007). Reconceptualizing Teacher Educator Knowledge as Tensions: Exploring the Tension Between Valuing and Reconstructing Experience. Studying Teacher Education, 3(2), 117-134.

Booth, S. (1997). On phenomenography, learning and teaching. Higher Education Research and Development, 16(2), 135-158.

Bullock, S. M., & T. Christou. (2009). Exploring the Radical Middle Between Theory and Practice: A Collaborative Self-Study of Beginning Teacher Educators. Studying Teacher Education 5(1), 75-88.

Bullough, Jr. R. (1997). Becoming a teacher. Self and the social location of teacher education. International Handbook of Teachers and Teaching, (pp. 79-134). Dordrecht: Kluwer.

Calderhead, J. (1981). Stimulated recall: A method for research on teaching. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 51(2), 211-217.

Dall’Alba, G. (1991). Foreshadowing conceptions of teaching. In Ross, B. (Ed.), Research and Development in Higher Education, Vol. 13. Sydney: HERDSA (pp. 293-297).

Darling-Hammond, L. (2006). Powerful teacher education: Lessons from exemplary programs. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

Dinkelman, T., Margolis, J. & Sikkenga, K. (2006). From teacher to teacher educator: Experiences, expectations, and expatriation. Studying Teacher Education 2(1),5-23.

Donche, V., & Petegem, P. (2011). Teacher Educators’ Conceptions of Learning to Teach and Related Teaching Strategies. Research Papers in Education, 26(2), 207-222.

Engle, R. A., & Conant, F. R. (2002). Guiding principles for fostering productive disciplinary engagement: Explaining an emergent argument in a community of learner’s classroom. Cognition and Instruction, 20, 399-484.

Fox, D. (1983). Personal theories of teaching. Studies in Higher Education, 8, 151-163. Goodwin, A. L., & Kosnik, C. (2013). Quality teacher educa- tors=quality teachers? Conceptualizing essential domains of knowledge for those who teach teachers. Teacher Develop- ment, 17(3), 334-346.

Gow, L., & Kember, D. (1993). Conceptions of teaching and their relationship to student learning. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 63, 20-33.

Gurney, B. F. (1995). Tugboats and tennis games: Pre-service conceptions of teaching and learning revealed through metaphors. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 32(6), 569-583.

Hadar, L. (2009). Ideal versus school learning: Analyzing Israeli secondary school students’ conceptions of learning. International Journal of Educational Research, 48(1), 1-11.

John-Steiner, V., & Mahn, H. (1996). Sociocultural approaches to learning and development: A Vygotskian Framework. Educational Psychological, 31(3/4), 191-206.

Kember, D., & Gow. L. (1994). Orientations to teaching and their effect on the quality of student learning. Journal of Higher Education, 65, 58-74.

Kember, D. (1997). A reconceptualisation of the research into university academics’ conceptions of teaching. Learning and Instruction, 7, 225-275.

Kosnik, C., & Beck, C. (2008). In the shadows: Non-tenure-line instructors in pre-service teacher education. European Journal of Teacher Education 31(2), 185-202.

Krull, E., & Raudsepp, I. (2012). Developmental changes in student teachers’ conceptions of learning and teaching resulting from studying a course in educational psychology. In J. Mikk,

M. Veisson, & P. Luik (Eds.), Lifelong learning and teacher development, Vol. 4 (pp. 97-112). Frankfurt am Main: Peter Lang Publishing Group.

Leach, J., & Scott, P. (2000). The concept of learning demand as a tool for designing teaching sequences. Paper prepared at the meeting research-based teaching sequences, Université Paris VII, France, November.

Lemke, J.L. (1990). Talking science: Language, learning and values. Norwood, NJ: Ablex.

Leon-Carillo C. (2007) Filipino pre-service education students’ preconceptions of teacher roles viewed through a metaphorical lens. Asia-Pacific Journal of Teacher Education, 35(2), 197-217.

Lin, A. M. Y. (2007). What’s the use of “triadic dialogue”? Activity theory, conversation analysis and analysis of pedagogical practices. Pedagogies, 2(2), 77-94.

Loughran, J. (2006). Developing a Pedagogy of Teacher Education: Understanding Teaching and Learning about Teaching. New York: Routledge.

Loughran, J. (2008). Toward a Better Understanding of Teaching and Learning about Teaching. In Handbook of Research on Teacher Education: Enduring Questions in Changing Contexts. 3rd ed., edited by M. Cochran-Smith, S. Feiman-Nemser, and J. McIntryre, (pp. 1177-1182). New York: Routledge.

Magnusson, S., Krajcik, J., & Borko, H. (1999). Nature, sources and development of pedagogical content knowledge. In by J. Gess- Newsome and N. G. Lederman (eds), Examining pedagogical content knowledge, (pp. 95-132). Dordrecht: Kluwer.

Mameli, C., & Molinari, L. (2013) Interactive micro-processes in classroom discourse: turning points and emergent meanings. Research Papers in Education, 28(2), 196-211.

Martin, E., & Balla, M. (1991). Conceptions of teaching and implications for learning. In

Martin, E., & Ramsden, P. (1992). An expanding awareness: how lecturers change their understanding of teaching. In M. S. Parer, (ed.), Research and Development in Higher Education, Vol. 15. Sydney: HERDSA, pp. 148-155.

Marton, F. (1986). Phenomenography: A research approach to investigating different understandings of reality. Journal of Thought, 21(3), 28-49.

Marton, F. (1995). On non-verbal learning 1. Level of processing and level of outcome. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, 16, 273-279.

Marton, F., & Booth, S. (1997). Learning and awareness. Hillsdale, N. J.: Lawrence Erlbaum.

Mortimer, E., & Scott, P. (2003). Meaning making in secondary science classrooms. Maidenhead, England: Open University Press.

Murray, J. (2005). Re-addressing the priorities: New teacher educators and induction into higher education. European Journal of Teacher Education, 28(1), 67-85.

Murray, J. & Kosnik, C. (2011). Academic work and identities in teacher education. Journal of Education for Teaching, 37(3), 243-246.

Pajares, M. F. (1992). Teachers’ beliefs and educational research: Cleaning up a messy construct. Review of Educational Research, 62(3), 307-332.

Pratt, D. D. (1992). Conceptions of teaching. Adult Education Quarterly, 42, 203-220.

Prosser, M., Trigwell, K., & Taylor, P. (1994). A phenomenographic study of academics’ conceptions of science learning and teaching. Learning and Instruction, 4, 217-232.

Prosser, M., & Trigwell, K. (1999). Understanding learning and teaching: The experience in higher education. Buckingham: Open University Press.

Richardson, V. (1996). The role of attitudes and beliefs in learning to teach. In J. Sikula (Ed), Handbook of Research in Teacher Education, (pp.102-119). New York: Macmillan.

Samuelowicz, K., & Bain, J. D. (1992). Conceptions of teaching held by academic teachers. Higher Education, 24, 93-111.

Samuelowicz, K., & Bain, J. D. (2001). Revisiting academics’ beliefs about teaching and learning. Higher Education, 41, 299-395.

Schon, D. A. (1983). The reflective practitioner: How professionals think in action. New York: Basic Books. Schon, D. A. (1987). Educating the reflective practitioner: Toward a new design for teaching and learning in the professions. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

Scott, P. H. (1998). Teacher talk and meaning making in science classrooms: A Vygotskian analysis and review. Studies in Science Education, 32, 45-80.

Shulman, L. S. (1986a). Those who understand: Knowledge growth in teaching. Educational Researcher, 15(2), 4-14.

Sjostrom, B., & Dahlgren, L. O. (2002). Applying phenomenography in nursing research. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 40(3), 339- 345.

Timmerman, G. (2009). Teacher educators modelling their teachers? European Journal of Teacher Education, 32(3), 225- 238.

Tondeur, J., Hermans, R., van Braak, J., & Valcke, M. (2008). Exploring the link between teachers’ educational belief profiles and different types of computer use in the classroom. Computers in Human Behavior, 24, 2541-2553.

Vanassche, E., & Kelchtermans, G. (2016). A narrative analysis of a teacher educator’s professional learning journey. European Journal of Teacher Education, 39(3), 355-367.

Van Driel, J. H., Bulte, A. M. W., & Verloop, N. (2007). The relationship between teachers’ general beliefs about teaching and learning and their domain specific curricular beliefs. Learning and Instruction, 17, 156-171.

Vloet, K., & van Swet, J. (2010). I can only learn in dialogue! Exploring professional identities in teacher education. Professional Development in Education, 36(1-2), 149-168.

Vygotsky, L. S. (1978). Mind in society. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Vygotsky, L. S. (1981). The genesis of higher mental functions. In J. W. Wertsch (Ed.), The concept of activity in Soviet psychology (pp. 144-188). Armonk, N. Y.: Sharpe.

Vygotsky, L. S. (1987). Thinking and speech (N. Minick, Trans.). In R. W. Rieber & A. S. Carton (Eds.), The collected works of L. S. Vygotsky: Vol. 1. Problems of general psychology, (pp. 39-285). New York: Plenum Press. (Original work published 1934).

Wildman, T.M. (2008). Learning. In J.S. Neil & K. Rasmussen (Eds.), Encyclopedia of educational psychology (Vol. 2, pp. 573-578). Los Angeles: Sage Publications.

Zeichner, K. (2005). Becoming a teacher educator: A personal perspective. Teaching and Teacher Education, 21(2), 117-124.

Kaynak Göster