Kurumsal Uygulama Entegrasyonu

Enformasyon teknolojilerinin hızlı gelişimi doğrultusunda, işletmeler rekabet avantajı sağlayabilmek amacıyla enformasyon sistem ve uygulamalan konusundaki yatırımlarını hızlandırmışlardır. İşletmeler, işletme içi fonksiyonlar arasında entegrasyonu sağlamak için lajrumsal kaynak planlama sistemlerini (enterprise resource planning-ERP) son yıllarda tercih etmektedirler. Ancak teknolojinin de gelişen imkanlanyla bir süre sonra işletme dışındaki tedarikçi, müşteri, finans kuruluşlan ve devlet gibi paydaşların işletme ile entegrasyonu gerekli hale gelmiştir. Bu noktada uygulamalar arası altyapı fârkhlıldan nedeniyle ERP sistemleri yetersiz kalmıştır. Son zamanlarda finansal ve yönetimsel nedenlerden dolayı artan şirket birleşmeleri ve satnalmaları, e-iş (business-to-business, B2B) ve e-ticaret (e-commerce, B2Q uygulamalan da farklı enformasyon altyapılarının birlikte kdlanılması gerekliliğini doğurmuştur. Bu problemlere çözüm olarak geliştirilen kurumsal uygulama entegrasyonu (enterprise application integration-EAI) yaklaşımı farklı sistemleri bağımsız bir platform üzerinden eşleştirme ve bu sayede altyapıdan bağımsız olarak veri ve enformasyon paylaşımı imkanı sağlamaktadır. Bu çalışmanın amacı, EAI yaklaşımının gelişimini, ERP ile olan farklılıklarını, uygulama metot ve süreci ile EAI projelerindeki avantaj ve riskleri açıldarnaktır. EAI konusunda yapılacak akademik çalışmalara ve işletmelerdeki EAI proje yöneticilerine ve çalışanlarına yardıma olacak bilgi ve öneriler sunulması hedeflenmektedir.

Enterprise Application Integration (EAI)

The development in information technologies link the companies to invest more in information systems and applications to gain competitive advantage. Companies prefer ERP systems to integrate their internal business functions. Nevertheless the development of technology results the need to integrate other stakeholders to Ihe companies; customers, suppliers, financial and governmental institutions. ERP systems show inefficiencies at this point because of the infrastnicture differences. In recent years according to financial and organizational strategic decisions more joint ventures and company buying? happened in all over the world, e-business (B2B) and e-commerce (B2Q applications are widely used, both of them generate the need of using different information systems together. As a solution Ihe enterprise application integration (EAI) approach is created to realize the mapping of different applications on an independent platform. This ensure the sharing of data and information in different infrastructures without any problem. The objective of this article is to report the development of EAI approach, differences to ERP, implementation methods and process, advantages and risks in EAI projects. This article would also assist the researchers andprovide recommendations to EAI project managers or workers. Keywords: Enterprise Integration, Enterprise Application Integration (EAI), Integration Strategies

Kaynakça

AL-MASHARI, M., AL-MUDIMIGH, A., ZAIRI, M., 2003, "Enterprise Resource Planning: A Taxonomy of Critical Factors", European Journal of Operational Research, Vol. 146, s:352-364.

ARON, D., SAMPLER, J.L., 2003, Understanding IT: A Manager's Guide, Prentice Hall, Essex, UK.

BAHLI, B., JI, F., 2007, "An Assessment of Facilitators and Inhibitors for the Adoption of Enterprise Application Integration Technology: An Empirical Study", Business Process Management Journal, Vol.13, No.l, s:108-120.

BARKER, T., FROLICK, M. N., 2003, "ERP Implementation Failure: A Case Study", Information Systems Management, Vol. 20, No.4, s:43-49.

BARWAT, A., 2007, Enterprise Application Integration in Distributed Computing Environment Using Service Oriented Architecture with Web Services, Yüksek Lisans Tezi, Kalifornia Üniversitesi, ABD.

BINGI, P., SHARMA, M. K., GODLA, J. K., 1999, "Critical Issues Affecting an ERP Implementation", Information Systems Management, Vol. 16, s:7-14.

BOSILJ-VUKSIC, V., SPREMIC, M., 2005, "ERP System Implementation and Business Process Change: Case Study of Croatian Pharmaceutical Company", Journal of Computer and Information Technology - CIT, Vol. 13, No. 1, s: 11-24.

BROWN,R.W., 2006, Implementation of Enterprise Information Systems: A Comparative Study of Enterprise Application Integration (EAI) vs. Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP), Doktora Tezi, Teksas Üniversitesi, ABD.

CHARLES, J. ,1999, "Middleware moves to the forefront", IEEE Computer, May 1999, s: 17- 19.

CONNELLY, D., 1999, "Best Practices in Software Application Integration and the Open Application Group", Wirtschaftsinformatik, Vol. 41,No:6,s:497-505.

Springboard Study (2008), http ://www. cxotoday. com/India/Mark et_Scan/EAI_Market_to_Overtake_IT _Outsourcing_by_2011/551-89700- 1009.html, Giriş Tarihi: 29.10.2008.

DAVENPORT, T.H., 1993, Process Innovation: Reengineering Work through Information Technology, Harvard Business School Press, Boston, ABD.

DAVENPORT, T. H., 1998, "Putting the Enterprise into the Enterprise System", Harvard Business Review, Vol. 76, s:121-131.

ERASALA, N., YEN, D.C. ve RAJKUMAR, D.M., 2003, "Enterprise Application Integration in the Electronic Commerce World", Computer Standards & Interfaces, Vol. 25, s:69-82.

ESHEL, E., 2000, "Enterprise Application Integration in Financial Services", in: KEYES, J. (Ed.), Financial Services Information Systems, Auerbach Publications, New York, s:469-483.

GIBSON, N., HOLLAND, C, LIGHT, B., 1999, "A Case Study of a Fast Track SAP R/3 Implementation at Guilbert", Electronic Markets, Vol. 9, s: 190-193.

GILMER, B., 1998, "High-speed Networking Topologies", Broadcast Engineering, Vol. 40 No.7., s:42^6.

GLEGHORN, R., 2005, "Enterprise Application Integration: A Manager's Perspective", IT Pro, IEEE Computer Society, November-December 2005, s: 17-23.

GROVER, V., JEONG, S. R., KETTINGER, W. J., TENG, J. T. C, 1995, "The Implementation of Business Process Reengineering", Journal of Management Information Systems, Vol. 12, s: 109-144:

GULLEDGE, T., 2006, "What is Integration ", Industrial Management and Data Systems, Vol. 106, No. 1, s:5-20.

HAMMER, M., CHAMPY, J., 1993, Değişim Mühendisliği - İş İdaresinde Devrim için bir Manifesto, Çeviri: Sinem Gül, Sabah Kitapları, 4, Baskı, İstanbul.

HEINRICH, L.J., LEHNER, F., 2005, Informationsmanagement: Planung, Uberwachung und Steuerung Informationsinfrastruktur, 8. Baskı, Oldenbourg Verlag, Münih, Almanya.

HO, L. T., LIN, G. C. I., 2004, "Critical Success Factor Framework for the Implementation of Integrated-Enterprise Systems in the Manufacturing Environment", International Journal of Production Research, Vol. 42, s:3731-3742.

HUANG, S.M., CHANG, I.C., LI, S.H., LIN, M.T., 2004, "Assessing Risk in ERP Projects: Identify and Prioritize the Factors", Industrial Management & Data Systems, Vol. 104,s:681-688.

HUANG, A., YEN, D.C., CHOU, D.C., XU, Y., 2003, "Corporate Applications Integration: Challenges, Opportunities, and Implementation Strategies ", Journal of Business and Management, Vol. 9, No. 2, s:137-150.

HUANG, Y., CHUNG, J.Y., 2003, "A Web-Services-Based Framework for Business Integration Solutions", Electronic Commerce Research and Applications, Vol. 2, s: 15-26.

IP, W.H., KAM, K.W., 1998, "An Education and Training Model for Manufacturing Resource Planning", International Journal of Engineering Education, Vol. 14, No. 4, s:248-256.

JOHANNESSON, P, PERJONS, E., 2001, "Design Principles for Process Modelling in Enterprise Application Integration", Information Systems, Vol.26, s:165-184.

KALAKOTA, R., WHINSTON, A., 1993, "The Future of Information Systems: Leadership through Enterprise Integration", Journal of IS Education: Online, Vol. 5, No. 1, s:2-8.

KELLER, W., 2002, Enterprise Application Integration: Erfahrungen aus der Praxis, dpunkt Verlag, Heidelberg, Almanya.

LAM, W., SHANKARARAMAN, V., 2004, "An Enterprise Integration Methodology", IT Pro, March-April 2004, s:40-48.

LEE, J., SIAU, K., HONG, S., 2003, "Enterprise Integration with ERP and EAI", Commuciation of the ACM, Vol. 46, No. 2, s;54-60.

LINTHICUM, D. S., 1999, Enterprise Application Integration, Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, New Jersey, ABD.

LUBLINSKY, B., 2001, "Achieving the Ultimate EAI Implementation", eAI Journal, February, s:26-31

MANDAL, P., GUNASEKARAN, A., 2003, "Issues in Implementing ERP: A Case Study", European Journal of Operational Research, Vol. 146, s:274-283.

O'MALLEY, J.R., MATHESON, L.A.,2002, "New Directions for Research in Electronic Data Interchange (EDI)", Journal of Information Technology Management, Vol. 13, No.3-4, s:33-43.

PLENERT, G., 1999, "Focusing Material Requirement Planning (MRP) Towards Performance", European Journal of Operational Research, Vol. 119, s:91-99.

PUSCHMANN, T., ALT, R., 2004, "Enterprise Application Integration Systems and Architecture - The Case of the Robert Bosch Group", The Journal of Enterprise Information Management, Vol. 17, No. 2, s:105-116.

SHARIF, A.M., IRANI, Z., LOVE, P.E., 2005, "Integrating ERP Using EAI: a Model for Post Hoc Evaluation", European Journal of Information Systems, Vol. 14, s:162-174.

THEMISTOCLEOUS, M., IRANI, Z., 2001, "Benchmarking the Benefits and Barriers of Application Integration", Benchmarking: An International Journal, Vol. 8, No. 4, s:317-331.

THEMISTOCLEOUS, M.,IRANI, Z.,2002,"Evaluating and Adopting Application Integration: The Case of a Multinational Petroleum Company", Proceedings of the 35th Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences, January, s:l-9.

THEMISTOCLEOUS, M., 2004, "Justifying the Decisions for EAI Implementations: A Validated Proposition of Influencial Factors ", The Journal of Enterprise Information Management, Vol. 17, No. 2, s:85-104.

THEMISTOCLEOUS, M.,CORBITT, G., 2006, "Is Business Process Integration Feasible?", Journal of Enterprise Information Management, Vol. 19, No. 4, s:434-449.

YANG, H.M., LU, H.L.V., 2005, "Integrating Inter- and Extra-Enterprise Applications Using Web Services", Review of Business, Vol. 26, No. 3;s:3-9.

Kaynak Göster