Jenerik rekabet stratejilerinin işletme karlılığı ve pazar performansına etkisi

Porter, işletmelerin uzun dönemde sürdürülebilir rekabet avantajını ancak ve ancak farklılaştırma ya da düşük maliyet liderliği olarak ifade edilen jenerik stratejilerden sadece bir tanesinin başarı ile uygulanması sayesinde elde edilebileceğini, çoklu seçimleri benimseyerek, farklı stratejileri kombine etmeye çalışan işletmelerin ise, hiçbir stratejiyi tam olarak uygulayamayarak, stratejik seçimler araşma sıkışıp (stuck in the middle) kalacaklarım iddia etmektedir. Bu araştırmada, Porter'ın rekabet modeli esas alınarak, tekli ya da çoklu jenerik strateji seçimlerinin işletmeler arası karlılık, pazar büyüme oranı ve toplam satış büyüme oranı kriterleri açısmdan performans farklılığı yaratıp yaratmadığı incelenmiştir. 157 işletme üzerinde Yamin, Gunasekaran ve Mavondo tarafından geliştirilen "Jenerik Strateji Ölçeği" kullanılarak gerçekleştirilen araştırma sonunda, hem farklılaştırma hem de düşük maliyet liderliği stratejilerini aynı anda izleyebilen işletmelerin, diğer işletmelere oranla hem karlılık hem de pazar performansı (pazar payı ve toplam satış büyüme oranı) açısından belirgin olarak daha başarılı olduğu ortaya çıkarken, ne düşük maliyet liderliği ne de farklılaştırma stratejilerinden herhangi birisini başarı ile uygulayamayan ve "arada sıkışıp kalanlar" olarak adlandırılan işletmelerin ise, gerek karlılık, gerekse pazar performanslarının diğer tüm işletmelere göre daha düşük olduğu belirlenmiştir.

Porter considered that in the long term the extent to which the firm is able to follow a single strategy, either differentiation or low cost leadership, in an industry is a major determinant of the success with which it will out-perform its competitors. He also suggested that the firms which tried to combine the multiple strategies will have focus problems and show low performance since they would be stuck in the middle of both strategies. This paper examines whether single and multiple generic strategy choices create a significant difference between the firms in terms of profitability, market share growth rate and total sales growth rate, based on Porter's generic competitive strategy model. In order to classify the firms in terms of their strategic choices, "Generic Strategy Scale" developed by Yamin, Gunasekaran and Mavondo, was used. Results of the study which comprised of 157 firms have showed that the firms which could have combined multiple strategies effectively outperformed all other firms that adopted single strategies. However, the results also revealed that the firms which could have not adopted and applied any of the strategy (stuck in the middle ones), either differentiation or low cost leadership, effectively showed the lowest performance among the others.

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