Ultrases Uygulamasının Süt Bileşenleri Üzerine Etkisi

Günümüzde tüketicilerin katkı maddesi ve koruyucu içermeyen, doğal tat ve aromaya sahip, besinsel değeri yüksek gıda ürünlerini tercih etmesi; yenilikçi/ısıl olmayan gıda işleme proseslerinin geliştirilmesini sağlamıştır. Bu kapsamda, sıvı gıdaların işlenmesinde özellikle ultrases ön plana çıkmaktadır. Ultrases insan kulağının duyduğu 16 kHz ile 20 kHz düzeyinden daha yüksek frekansa sahip ses dalgaları tarafından oluşturulan bir enerji türüdür. Yüksek frekanslı ultrases analitik ölçüm tekniği olarak gıdaların çeşitli fizikokimyasal özelliklerin ölçülmesinde kullanılırken, düşük frekanslı ultrases gıdaların fiziksel ve kimyasal özelliklerini değiştirmek amacıyla uygulanmaktadır. Ultrases saf inorganik sistemlere uygulandığında oluşan serbest radikallerin okside olması veya indirgenmesi meydana gelmektedir. Ancak, gıda gibi kompleks bir sisteme ultrases uygulanması kimyasal reaksiyonların çok çeşitli olmasına neden olmaktadır. Nitekim, süt ve süt ürünlerinde 20-25 kHz düzeyinde ultrases uygulaması çeşitli fiziksel değişimler meydana getirirken 2 MHz’ e kadar yüksek frekans ultrases uygulaması güçlü kimyasal reaksiyonlara sebep olmaktadır. Bu derlemenin amacı ultrases uygulamasının süt bileşenleri üzerine etkilerini fikizel ve kimyasal kimyasal değişimler açısından detaylı bir şekilde ortaya konmasıdır.

The Effect of Ultrasound Treatment on Milk's Components

Nowadays, consumer preferences for food products that do not contain additives and preservatives, have a natural taste and aroma, and have high nutritional value led to the development of innovative/non-thermal food processing processes. In this regard, ultrasound technology comes to the forefront for processing of liquid foods. Ultrasound is a type of energy that is created by sound waves at the frequency range above that of human hearing from 20 Hz to 1 GHz. A high frequency ultrasound is used as an analytical measurement technique to measure various physicochemical properties of foods, while a low frequency ultrasound is applied to change the physical and chemical properties of foods. When ultrasound is applied in pure inorganic system, the oxidation and reduction of free redicals is occured. However, the application of ultrasound for a complex system like as foods leads to a wide variety of chemical reactions. Indeed, the application ultrasound with the frequency of 20-25 kHz creates a various phyiscal changes in mik and dairy products, while strong chemical reaction is caused by a high intensity ultrasound up to 2MHz. The aim of this review is to reveal the effect of ultrasound treatment on milk components regarding phyisical and chemical changes in detail.

___

  • 1. Scudino H, Silva EK, Gomes A, Guimaraes JT, Cunha RL, Sant'Ana AS, Meireles MAA, Cruz AG. Ultrasound stabilization of raw milk: Microbial and enzymatic inactivation, physicochemical properties and kinetic stability, Ultrasonics Sonochemistry, 2020;67:105185. Erişim adresi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ultsonch.2020.105185
  • 2. Ünal RN, Besler HT. Beslenmede sütün önemi, Sağlık Bakanlığı Yayın, 727. Ankara: Klasmat Matbaacılık; 2008. ISBN:978-975-590-243-2
  • 3. Engin B, Güneşer O, Yüceer YK. Ultraviyole ışınlarının sütün mikrobiyal kalitesi üzerine etkisi, Gıda, 2009;34(5):303-308. Erişim adresi: https://dergipark.org.tr/en/pub/gida/issue/6859/91913
  • 4. Bendicho S, Espachs A, Arantegui J, Martín O. Effect of high intensity pulsed electric fields and heat treatments on vitamins of milk, Journal of Dairy Research, 2002;69(1):113-123. Erişim adresi: https://doi.org/10.1017/S0022029901005258
  • 5. Moltó-Puigmartí C, Permanyer M, Castellote AI, López-Sabater MC. Effects of pasteurisation and high-pressure processing on vitamin C, tocopherols and fatty acids in mature human milk, Food Chemistry, 2011;124(3):697-702. Erişim adresi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2010.05.079
  • 6. Sierra I, Vidal-Valverde C. Vitamin B1 and B6 retention in milk after continuous-flow microwave and conventional heating at high temperatures, Journal of food protection, 2001;64(6):890-894. Erişim adresi: https://doi.org/10.4315/0362-028X-64.6.890
  • 7. Kilic-Akyilmaz M, Ozer B, Bulat T, Topcu A. Effect of heat treatment on micronutrients, fatty acids and some bioactive components of milk, International Dairy Journal, 2022;126:105231. Erişim adresi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.idairyj.2021.105231
  • 8. Aday MS. Ultrasesin Gıda İşleme ve Muhafazasında Kullanımı, MAS Journal of Applied Sciences, 2021;6(3):661-684. Erişim adresi: https://doi.org/10.52520/masjaps.116
  • 9. İçier F, Baysal T. Gıda teknolojisinde minimal işleme, In: Baysal T, İçier F. Gıda Mühendisliğinde Isıl Olmayan Teknolojiler. Ankara: Nobel Akademik Yayıncılık Eğitim Danışmanlık Tic. Ltd. Şti.; 2012. p. 1-11.
  • 10. Guneser O, Yuceer YK. Effect of ultraviolet light on water-and fat-soluble vitamins in cow and goat milk, Journal of Dairy Science, 2012;95(11):6230-6241. Erişim adresi: https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.2011-5300
  • 11. Liu Y, Xiong L, Kontopodi E, Boeren S, Zhang L, Zhou P, Hettinga K. Changes in the milk serum proteome after thermal and non-thermal treatment, Innovative Food Science & Emerging Technologies, 2020;66:102544. Erişim adresi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ifset.2020.102544
  • 12. Qin S, Li P, Liang G, Liu J, Huang S, Meng J. Pulsed electric field treatment of raw milk and its effect on protein-free amino acids transition, IEEE Transactions on Plasma Science, 2022;50(4):911-919. Erişim adresi: https://doi.org/10.1109/TPS.2022.3151827
  • 13. Abrahamsen RK, Narvhus JA. Can ultrasound treatment replace conventional high temperature short time pasteurization of milk? A critical review, International Dairy Journal, 2022;131:105375. Erişim adresi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.idairyj.2022.105375
  • 14. Bermudez-Aguirre D. Sonochemistry of foods. In: Bermudez-Aguirre D. Ultrasound: Advances for Food Processing and Preservation. San Diego, CA, USA: Academic Press; 2017. p.131-143. ISBN: 978-0-12-804581-7
  • 15. Carrillo-Lopez LM, Garcia-Galicia IA, Tirado-Gallegos JM, Sanchez-Vega R, Huerta-Jimenez M, Ashokkumar M, Alarcon-Rojo AD. Recent advances in the application of ultrasound in dairy products: Effect on functional, physical, chemical, microbiological and sensory properties, Ultrasonics Sonochemistry, 2021;73:105467. Erişim adresi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ultsonch.2021.105467
  • 16. Li W, Gamlath CJ, Pathak R, Martin GJ, Ashokkumar M. Ultrasound–the physical and chemical effects integral to food processing, In: Knoerzer K, Kasiviswanathan M. Innovative Food Processing Technologies A Comprehensive Review. Cambridge MA 02139, United State: Elsevier Inc; 2021. p. 329-358. ISBN:978-0-12-815782-4
  • 17. Chandrapala J, Ong L, Zisu B, Gras SL, Ashokkumar M, Kentish SE. The effect of sonication and high pressure homogenisation on the properties of pure cream, Innovative Food Science & Emerging Technologies, 2016;33:298-307. Erişim adresi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ifset.2015.11.023
  • 18. Ertugay MF, Şengül M, Şengül M. Effect of ultrasound treatment on milk homogenisation and particle size distribution of fat, Turkish Journal of Veterinary & Animal Sciences, 2004;28(2):303-308. Erişim adresi: https://journals.tubitak.gov.tr/veterinary/vol28/iss2/9/
  • 19. Akdeniz V, Akalın AS. The effect of high power ultrasound on the milk homogenization efficiency and milk fat globule size compared to conventional homogenization, Turkish Journal of Agriculture-Food Science and Technology, 2020;8(1):252-259. Erişim adresi: https://doi.org/10.24925/turjaf.v8i1.252-259.2830
  • 20. Karlović S, Bosiljkov T, Brnčić M, Semenski D, Dujmić F, Tripalo B, Ježek D. Reducing fat globules particle-size in goat milk: ultrasound and high hydrostatic pressures approach, Chemical and Biochemical Engineering Quarterly, 2014;28(4):499-507.
  • 21. Villamiel M, de Jong P. Influence of high-intensity ultrasound and heat treatment in continuous flow on fat, proteins, and native enzymes of milk, Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 2000;48(2):472-47. Erişim adresi: https://doi.org/10.1021/jf990181s
  • 22. Li W, Gamlath CJ, Pathak R, Martin GJ, Ashokkumar M. Ultrasound–the physical and chemical effects integral to food processing, In: Knoerzer K, Kasiviswanathan M. Innovative Food Processing Technologies A Comprehensive Review. Cambridge MA 02139, United State: Elsevier Inc; 2021. p. 329-358. ISBN:978-0-12-815782-4
  • 23. Ragab ES, Lu J, Pang XY, Nassar KS, Yang BY, Zhang SW, Lv JP. Effect of thermosonication process on physicochemical properties and microbial load of goat’s milk, Journal of Food Science and Technology, 2019;56(12):5309-5316. Erişim adresi: https://doi.org/10.1007/s13197-019-04001-3
  • 24. Kashaninejad M, Razavi SMA. Influence of thermosonication treatment on the average size of fat globules, emulsion stability, rheological properties and color of camel milk cream, LWT, 2020;132:109852. Erişim adresi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lwt.2020.109852
  • 25. Liu Y, Boeren S, Zhang L, Zhou P, Hettinga K. Ultrasonication retains more milk fat globule membrane proteins compared to equivalent shear-homogenization, Innovative Food Science & Emerging Technologies, 2021;70:102703. Erişim adresi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ifset.2021.102703
  • 26. Engin B, Karagul Yuceer Y. Effects of ultraviolet light and ultrasound on microbial quality and aroma‐active components of milk, Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 2012;92(6):1245-1252. Erişim adresi: https://doi.org/10.1002/jsfa.4689
  • 27. Riener J, Noci F, Cronin DA, Morgan DJ, Lyng JG. Characterisation of volatile compounds generated in milk by high intensity ultrasound, International Dairy Journal, 2009;19(4):269-272. Erişim adresi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.idairyj.2008.10.017
  • 28. Marchesini G, Balzan S, Montemurro F, Fasolato L, Andrighetto I, Segato S, Novelli E. Effect of ultrasound alone or ultrasound coupled with CO2 on the chemical composition, cheese-making properties and sensory traits of raw milk, Innovative Food Science & Emerging Technologies, 2012;16:391-397. Erişim adresi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ifset.2012.09.003
  • 29. Martini S, Suzuki AH, Hartel RW. Effect of high intensity ultrasound on crystallization behavior of anhydrous milk fat, Journal of the American Oil Chemists' Society, 2008;85(7):621-628. Erişim adresi: https://doi.org/10.1007/s11746-008-1247-5
  • 30. Gregersen SB, Frydenberg RP, Hammershøj M, Dalsgaard TK, Andersen U, Wiking L. Application of high intensity ultrasound to accelerate crystallization of anhydrous milk fat and rapeseed oil blends, European Journal of Lipid Science and Technology, 2019;121(1):1800200. Erişim adresi: https://doi.org/10.1002/ejlt.201800200
  • 31. Corzo-Martínez M, Villamiel M, Moreno FJ. Impact of high-intensity ultrasound on protein structure and functionality during food processing, In: Villamiel M, Montilla A, García-Pérez JV, Cárcel JA, Benedito J. Ultrasound in Food Processing, John Wiley & Sons Ltd; 2017. p. 417-436. Erişim adresi: https://doi.org/10.1002/9781118964156.ch16
  • 32. Munir M, Nadeem M, Qureshi TM, Leong TS, Gamlath CJ, Martin GJ, Ashokkumar M. Effects of high pressure, microwave and ultrasound processing on proteins and enzyme activity in dairy systems—A review, Innovative Food Science & Emerging Technologies, 2019;57:102192. Erişim adresi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ifset.2019.102192
  • 33. Nunes L, Tavares GM. Thermal treatments and emerging technologies: Impacts on the structure and techno-functional properties of milk proteins, Trends in Food Science & Technology, 2019;90:88-99. Erişim adresi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tifs.2019.06.004
  • 34. Chandrapala J. Ultrasound Processing of Milk and Dairy Products. In: Ashokkuma M. Handbook of Ultrasonics and Sonochemistry. Singapore: Springer; 2016. p 1287–1320. Erişim adresi: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-287-278-4_66
  • 35. Madadlou A, Mousavi ME, Emam-djomeh Z, Ehsani M, Sheehan D. Sonodisruption of re-assembled casein micelles at different pH values, Ultrasonics Sonochemistry, 2009;16(5):644-648. Erişim adresi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ultsonch.2008.12.018
  • 36. Chandrapala J, Martin GJO, Zisu B, Kentish SE, Ashokkumar M. The effect of ultrasound on casein micelle integrity, Journal of Dairy Science, 2012;95(12):6882-6890. Erişim adresi: https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.2012-5318
  • 37. Liu Z, Juliano P, Williams RP, Niere J, Augustin MA. Ultrasound effects on the assembly of casein micelles in reconstituted skim milk, Journal of Dairy Research, 2014;81(2):146-155. Erişim adresi: https://doi.org/10.1017/S0022029913000721
  • 38. Chandrapala J, Zisu B, Kentish S, Ashokkumar M. Influence of ultrasound on chemically induced gelation of micellar casein systems, Journal of Dairy Research, 2013;80(2):138-143. Erişim adresi: https://doi.org/10.1017/S0022029912000696
  • 39. Cheng Y, Donkor PO, Ren X, Wu J, Agyemang K, Ayim I, Ma H. Effect of ultrasound pretreatment with mono-frequency and simultaneous dual frequency on the mechanical properties and microstructure of whey protein emulsion gels, Food Hydrocolloids, 2019;89:434-442. Erişim adresi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodhyd.2018.11.007
  • 40. Jiang Z, Yao K, Yuan X, Mu Z, Gao Z, Hou J, Jiang L. Effects of ultrasound treatment on physico‐chemical, functional properties and antioxidant activity of whey protein isolate in the presence of calcium lactate, Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 2018;98(4);1522-1529. Erişim adresi: https://doi.org/10.1002/jsfa.8623
  • 41. Hamdy AM, Mohran MA, Hassan AI, Fahmy MA. Effects of heat, ultrasound and microwave pretreatments on the antigenicity of whey protein concentrate (β-lactoglobulin), Assiut Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 2018;49:75-87. Erişim adresi: https://dx.doi.org/10.21608/ajas.2018.28370
  • 42. Huppertz T, Vasiljevic T, Zisu B, Deeth H. Novel processing technologies: Effects on whey protein structure and functionality. In: Deeth H, Bansal N. Whey Proteins. Academic Press; 2019. p. 281-334. Erişim adresi: https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-812124-5.00009-6
  • 43. Frydenberg RP, Hammershøj M, Andersen U, Wiking L. High intensity ultrasound effects on heat-induced whey protein isolate gels depend on α-lactalbumin: β-lactoglobulin ratio, International Dairy Journal, 2016;56:1-3. Erişim adresi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.idairyj.2016.01.005
  • 44. Zisu B, Chandrapala J. High power ultrasound processing in milk and dairy products. In: Datta N, Tomasula PM. Emerging Dairy Processing Technologies: Opportunities for the Dairy Industry. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.; 2015. p. 149-180. Erişim adresi: https://doi.org/10.1002/9781118560471.ch6
  • 45. Zisu B, Lee J, Chandrapala J, Bhaskaracharya R, Palmer M, Kentish S, Ashokkumar M. Effect of ultrasound on the physical and functional properties of reconstituted whey protein powders, Journal of Dairy Research, 2011;78(2):226-232. Erişim adresi: https://doi.org/10.1017/S0022029911000070
  • 46. Jambrak AR, Mason TJ, Lelas V, Herceg Z, Herceg IL. Effect of ultrasound treatment on solubility and foaming properties of whey protein suspensions, Journal of Food Engineering, 2008;86(2):281-287. Erişim adresi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jfoodeng.2007.10.004
  • 47. Cameron M, McMaster LD, Britz TJ. Impact of ultrasound on dairy spoilage microbes and milk components, Dairy Science & Technology, 2009;89(1):83-98. Erişim adresi: https://doi.org/10.1051/dst/2008037
  • 48. Naeim MA. Impact of ultrasonic on some physiochemical and technological properties of raw milk, Journal of Food and Dairy Sciences, 2019;10(10):397-401. Erişim adresi: https://dx.doi.org/10.21608/jfds.2019.67436
  • 49. Juraga E, Vukušić Pavičić T, Gajdoš Kljusurić J, Brnčić M, Juraga T, Herceg Z. Properties of milk treated with high-power ultrasound and bactofugation, Food Technology and Biotechnology, 2021;59(1):92-102.
  • 50. Akdeniz V, Akalın AS. Recent advances in dual effect of power ultrasound to microorganisms in dairy industry: activation or inactivation, Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition, 2022;62(4):889-904. Erişim adresi: https://doi.org/10.1080/10408398.2020.1830027
  • 51. Huang G, Chen S, Dai C, Sun L, Sun W, Tang, Y, Xiong F, He R, Ma H. Effects of ultrasound on microbial growth and enzyme activity, Ultrasonics Sonochemistry, 2017;37:144-149. Erişim adresi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ultsonch.2016.12.018
  • 52. Guimarães, JT, Balthazar CF, Scudino H, Pimentel TC, Esmerino EA, Ashokkumar M, Freitas MQ, Cruz AG. High-intensity ultrasound: A novel technology for the development of probiotic and prebiotic dairy products, Ultrasonics Sonochemistry, 2019;57:12-21. Erişim adresi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ultsonch.2019.05.004
  • 53. Sakakibara M, Wang D, Ikeda K, Suzuki K. Effect of ultrasonic irradiation on production of fermented milk with Lactobacillus delbrueckii, Ultrasonics Sonochemistry, 1994;1(2):S107-S110. Erişim adresi: https://doi.org/10.1016/1350-4177(94)90007-8
  • 54. Wang D, Sakakibara M. Lactose hydrolysis and β-galactosidase activity in sonicated fermentation with Lactobacillus strains, Ultrasonics Sonochemistry, 1997;4(3):255-261. Erişim adresi: https://doi.org/10.1016/S1350-4177(96)00042-9
  • 55. Abesinghe AMNL, Vidanarachchi JK, Islam N, Karim MA. Effects of ultrasound on the fermentation profile and metabolic activity of lactic acid bacteria in buffalo's (Bubalus bubalis) milk, Innovative Food Science & Emerging Technologies, 2022;79:103048. Erişim adresi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ifset.2022.103048
  • 56. Nguyen TMP, Lee YK, Zhou W. Stimulating fermentative activities of bifidobacteria in milk by highintensity ultrasound, International Dairy Journal, 2009;19(6-7):410-416. Erişim adresi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.idairyj.2009.02.004
  • 57. Chandrapala J, Zisu B. Ultrasound technology in dairy processing. In: Ultrasound Technology in Dairy Processing. SpringerBriefs in Molecular Science(). Cham: Springer; 2018. Erişim adresi: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-93482-2_1
  • 58. Sánchez-García YI, Ashokkumar M, Mason TJ, Gutiérrez-Méndez N. Influence of ultrasound frequency and power on lactose nucleation, Journal of Food Engineering, 2019;249:34-39. Erişim adresi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jfoodeng.2019.01.007
  • 59. Zisu B, Sciberras M, Jayasena V, Weeks M, Palmer M, Dincer TD. Sonocrystallisation of lactose in concentrated whey, Ultrasonics Sonochemistry, 2014;21(6):2117-2121. Erişim adresi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ultsonch.2014.03.031
  • 60. Dincer TD, Zisu B, Vallet CGMR, Jayasena V, Palmer M, Weeks M. Sonocrystallisation of lactose in an aqueous system, International Dairy Journal, 2014;35(1):43-48. Erişim adresi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.idairyj.2013.10.001
  • 61. Patel SR, Murthy ZP. Ultrasound assisted crystallization for the recovery of lactose in an anti‐solvent acetone, Crystal Research and Technology: Journal of Experimental and Industrial Crystallography, 2009;44(8):889-896. Erişim adresi: https://doi.org/10.1002/crat.200900227
  • 62. Mawson R, Gamage M, Terefe NS, Knoerzer K. Ultrasound in enzyme activation and inactivation. In: Feng H, Barbosa-Canovas G, Weiss J. Ultrasound Technologies for Food and Bioprocessing. Food Engineering Series. New York: Springer; 2011. p. 369-404. Erişim adresi: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4419-7472-3_14
  • 63. Villamiel M, de Jong P. Influence of high-intensity ultrasound and heat treatment in continuous flow on fat, proteins, and native enzymes of milk, Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 2000;48(2):472-478. Erişim adresi: https://doi.org/10.1021/jf990181s
  • 64. Ertugay MF, Yüksel Y, Sengül M. The effect of ultrasound on lactoperoxidase and alkaline phosphatase enzymes from milk, Milchwissenschaft-Milk Science International, 2003;58:593–595.
  • 65. Chavan RS, Chavan SR, Khedkar CD, Jana AH. UHT milk processing and effect of plasmin activity on shelf life: A review, Comprehensive Reviews in Food Science and Food Safety, 2011;10:251–268. Erişim adresi: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1541-4337.2011.00157.x
  • 66. Vijayakumar S, Grewell D, Annandarajah C, Benner L, Clark S. Quality characteristics and plasmin activity of thermosonicated skim milk and cream, Journal of Dairy Science, 2015;98(10):6678-6691. Erişim adresi: https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.2015-9429
  • 67. Annandarajah C, Grewell D, Talbert JN, Raman DR, Clark S. Batch thermosonication for the reduction of plasmin activity in skim milk, Journal of Food Processing and Preservation, 2018;42(5):e13616. Erişim adresi: https://doi.org/10.1111/jfpp.13616
  • 68. Noguera NH, Lima DC, Fonteles TV, Rodrigues S. Influence of different non-thermal processing on guava, orange, and tangerine juices and the food matrix effects, Food and Bioprocess Technology, 2021;14(9):1662-1672. Erişim adresi: https://doi.org/10.1111/jfpp.13616
  • 69. Schuina GL, Moraes VP, Silva PI, Carvalho RV. Effect of thermosonication on pectin methylesterase activity and on quality characteristics of orange juice, Revista Ciência Agronômica, 2021;52(04). Erişim adresi: https://doi.org/10.5935/1806-6690.20210055
  • 70. Suo G, Zhou C, Su W, Hu X. Effects of ultrasonic treatment on color, carotenoid content, enzyme activity, rheological properties, and microstructure of pumpkin juice during storage, Ultrasonics Sonochemistry, 2022;84:105974. Erişim adresi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ultsonch.2022.105974
  • 71. Zhu D, Zhang Y, Kou C, Xi P, Liu H. Ultrasonic and other sterilization methods on nutrition and flavor of cloudy apple juice, Ultrasonics Sonochemistry, 2022;84:105975. Erişim adresi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ultsonch.2022.105975
  • 72. Parreiras PM, Nogueira JAV, da Cunha LR, Passos MC, Gomes NR, Breguez GS, Menezes, Falco TS, Bearzoti E, Menezes CC. Effect of thermosonication on microorganisms, the antioxidant activity and the retinol level of human milk, Food Control, 2020;113:107172. Erişim adresi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodcont.2020.107172
  • 73. Razavi R, Esmaeilzadeh KR. Comparative effect of thermo sonication and conventional heat process on lipid oxidation, vitamins and microbial count of milk, Journal of Food Researches, 2020;30(1):167-182.
  • 74. Shanmugam A, Chandrapala J, Ashokkumar M. The effect of ultrasound on the physical and functional properties of skim milk, Innovative Food Science & Emerging Technologies, 2012;16:251-258. Erişim adresi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ifset.2012.06.005
  • 75. Türkmen F. Yüksek Güçlü Ultrases İşleminin Sütün Fizikokimyasal Ve Jelleşme Özelliklerine Etkisi, Yüksek Lisans Tezi, İstanbul Teknik Üniversitesi Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü, İstanbul, Türkiye, 2012. Erişim adresi: http://hdl.handle.net/11527/2268
  • 76. Pirsaheb M, Moradi N. Sonochemical degradation of pesticides in aqueous solution: investigation on the influence of operating parameters and degradation pathway–a systematic review, RSC advances, 2020;10(13):7396-7423. Erişim adresi: https://doi.org/10.1039/C9RA11025A