Bölgesel Ölçekli Peyzaj Envanteri ve İzleme için Bir Araç Olarak Arazi Örtüsü Haritalama

Arazi örtüsü, çevrenin peyzaj düzeyindeki biyo-fiziksel bileşenlerin nitel ve nicel özelliklerinin belirlenmesini sağlayan bir kavramdır. Arazi örtüsü haritaları ve bazı durumlarda bu haritalardan üretilen çevresel değişim bilgisi, çevre kalitesi ve çevresel trendler için bir gösterge olarak kullanılmaktadır. Peyzaj düzeyinde çevresel izleme, belirli bir coğrafi bölgede, başlangıç ve sonuç tarihleri arasında belirli bir olguyu tanımlamak için yapılan; çevresel veri toplama ve karşılaştırmayı içeren, standart olarak tekrarlanan gözlemleri kapsayan bir olgudur. Peyzajların korunması ve yönetimi için gerekli olan izlemenin etkinliği, peyzaj düzeyinde çevresel bilginin indikatörü olan arazi örtüsünün yüksek doğrulukla haritalanmasına bağlıdır. Uydu uzaktan algılama verilerinin ve veri işleme yöntemlerinin günümüzde yaygın bir şekilde erişilebilir olması bu açıdan bir avantaj olarak değerlendirilebilir. Bu araştırma, peyzajların bölgesel düzeyde karakterizasyonu için ana bilgi kaynağını oluşturan arazi örtüsü haritalarının oluşturulmasında uydu uzaktan algılama verileri (Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflectance Radiometer-ASTER) ve yardımcı verilerin kullanıldığı; hibrit sınıflama yöntemlerini içeren bir süreç tarif edilmiştir. TÜBİTAK tarafından desteklenmiş olan 107Y153 No’lu Proje çıktıları ışığında, Mersin İli’nin Merkez, Erdemli ve Tarsus ilçe sınırlarını içeren araştırma alanı örneğinde tanımlanmıştır.

Land Cover Mapping As A Tool For Regional Landscape Inventory And Monitoring

The term “land cover” is a concept that helps to describe qualitative and quantitative aspects of landscape-level biophysical components of the environment. Land cover maps and the change information based on these maps are used as indicators for environmental quality and the trends that are observed in a landscape of interest. Landscape-level environmental monitoring refers to synoptic observations that involve environmental data collection and comparison for a particular phenomenon (e.g., urbanization, deforestation, etc.) and geographic region between start and end dates. Effectivenes of landscape-level monitoring strongly depends on accurate mapping of land cover that is mostly referred to as the indicator of landscape-level environment. In this respect, high accessibility of remotely sensed datasets and processing tools can be regarded as an advantage. This paper describes a methodology that is based on satellite remote sensing data (Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflectance Radiometer-ASTER) and that involves hybrid classification approach for landscape characterization on a regional scale. The proposed methodology is described and discussed in the light of a research project supported by TUBITAK (Grant no: 107Y153) conducted in the Central, Tarsus and Erdemli districts of Mersin province, Turkey.

___

  • Alphan, H., & Guvensoy, L. (2016). Detecting coastal urbanization and land use change in southern Turkey. Journal of Environmental Engineering and Landscape Management, 24, 97-107. Arnici, V., Marcantonio, M., La Porta, N., & Rocchini, D. (2017). A multi-temporal approach in MaxEnt modelling: A new frontier for land use/land cover change detection. Ecological informatics, 40, 40-49. Bera, S., & Das Chatterjee, N. (2019). Mapping and monitoring of land use dynamics with their change hotspot in North 24-Parganas district, India: a geospatial- and statistical-based approach. Modeling Earth Systems and Environment, 5, 1529-1551. Bettinger, P., & Merry, K. (2019). Land cover transitions in the United States South: 2007-2013. Applied Geography,105, 102-110. CEC, 1993. Corine Land-Cover: Guide Technique, Commission of the European Communities, Luxembourg. de Oliveira, S.N., de Carvalho, O.A., Gomes, R.A.T., Guimaraes, R.F., & McManus, C.M. (2017). Landscape-fragmentation change due to recent agricultural expansion in the Brazilian Savanna, Western Bahia, Brazil. Regional Environmental Change,17, 411-423. Dereli, M.A. (2018). Monitoring and prediction of urban expansion using multilayer perceptron neural network by remote sensing and GIS technologies: A case study from Istanbul metropolitan city. Fresenius Environmental Bulletin, 27, 9336-9344. Fagerholm, N., Oteros-Rozas, E., Raymond, C.M., Torralba, M., Moreno, G., Plieninger, T., 2016. Assessing linkages between ecosystem services, land-use and well-being in an agroforestry landscape using public participation GIS. Applied Geography,74, 30-46. Finlayson, C.M. (2000). Framework for designing a monitoring programme (invited oral presentation) National training course on the design and implementation of monitoring programs for natural areas, RAC/SPA-DHKD, Dalaman. Gulcin, D. (2019). The influence of urban growth on surrounding Mediterranean landscapes with particular reference to degradation of olive orchards. Fresenius Environmental Bulletin, 28, 3854-3864. Henderson, F.M., Hart, T.F., Orlando, L., Heaton, B., Portolese, J., & Chasan, R. (1998). Application of C-CAP protocol land-cover data to nonpoint source water pollution potential spatial models in a coastal environment. Photogrammetric Engineering and Remote Sensing, 64, 1015-1020. Izakovicova, Z., Miklos, L., & Miklosova, V. (2018). Integrative assessment of land use conflicts. Sustainability, 10, 3270 Jakabuskas, M., Whistler, J., Dillworth, M., & Martinko, A. (1992). Classifying remotely sensed data for use in an agricultural nonpoint-source pollution model, Journal of Soil and Water Conservation, 47, 179-183. Jendoubi, D., Liniger, H., & Speranza, C.I. (2019). Impacts of land use and topography on soil organic carbon in a Mediterranean landscape (north-western Tunisia). Soil-Germany 5, 239-251. Jombo, S., Adam, E., & Odindi, J. (2017). Quantification of landscape transformation due to the Fast Track Land Reform Programme (FTLRP) in Zimbabwe using remotely sensed data. Land Use Policy, 68, 287-294. Kefalas, G., Poirazidis, K., Xofis, P., & Kalogirou, S. (2018). Mapping and understanding the dynamics of landscape changes on heterogeneous Mediterranean islands with the use of OBIA: The case of Ionian region, Greece. Sustainability, 10, 2986. Klemas, V.V. (2001). Remote sensing of landscape-level coastal environmental indicators, Environmental Management, 27, 47-57. Marchi, M., Chianucci, F., Ferrara, C., Pontuale, G., Pontuale, E., Mavrakis, A., Morrow, N., Rossi, F., & Salvati, L. (2018)a. Sustainable land-use, wildfires, and evolving local contexts in a Mediterranean country, 2000-2015. Sustainability, 10, 3911. Marchi, M., Ferrara, C., Biasi, R., Salvia, R., & Salvati, L. (2018)b. Agro-forest management and soil degradation in Mediterranean environments: Towards a strategy for sustainable land use in vineyard and olive cropland. Sustainability, 10, 2565. Mitra, D., & Banerji, S. (2018). Urbanisation and changing waterscapes: A case study of New Town, Kolkata, West Bengal, India. Applied Geography,97, 109-118. Munoz-Rojas, J., Pinto-Correia, T., & Napoleone, C. (2019). Farm and land system dynamics in the Mediterranean: Integrating different spatial-temporal scales and management approaches. Land Use Policy, 88, 104082 Pausas, J.G., & Millan, M.M. (2019). Greening and browning in a climate change hotspot: The Mediterranean basin. Bioscience, 69, 143-151. Paz-Kagan, T., Ohana-Levi, N., Herrmann, I., Zaady, E., Henkin, Z., & Karnieli, A. (2016). Grazing intensity effects on soil quality: A spatial analysis of a Mediterranean grassland. Catena, 146, 100-110. Pena-Angulo, D., Khorchani, M., Errea, P., Lasanta, T., Martinez-Arnaiz, M., & Nadal-Romero, E. (2019). Factors explaining the diversity of land cover in abandoned fields in a Mediterranean mountain area. Catena, 181, 104064. Pond, B.A. (2016). Across the grain: Multi-scale map comparison and land change assessment. Ecological Indicators, 71, 660-668. Ramyar, R. (2019). Social ecological mapping of urban landscapes: Challenges and perspectives on ecosystem services in Mashhad, Iran. Habitat International, 92, 102043. Ridd, M.K. (1995). Exploring a VIS (Vegetation Impervious Surface-Soil) Model for urban ecosystem analysis through remote sensing: comparative anatomy for cities, International Journal of Remote Sensing, 16, 2156-2185. Riva, M.J., Daliakopoulos, I.N., Eckert, S., Hodel, E., & Liniger, H. (2017). Assessment of land degradation in Mediterranean forests and grazing lands using a landscape unit approach and the normalized difference vegetation index. Applied Geography,86, 8-21. Roberts, N., Allcock, S.L., Barnett, H., Mather, A., Eastwood, W.J., Jones, M., Primmer, N., Yigitbasioglu, H., & Vanniere, B. (2019). Cause-and-effect in Mediterranean erosion: The role of humans and climate upon Holocene sediment flux into a central Anatolian lake catchment. Geomorphology, 331, 36-48. Sahle, M., Saito, O., Furst, C., Demissew, S., & Yeshitela, K. (2019). Future land use management effects on ecosystem services under different scenarios in the Wabe River catchment of Gurage Mountain chain landscape, Ethiopia. Sustainability Science, 14, 175-190. Schneider, J., Ruda, A., & Venzlu, M. (2019). Development of the rural landscape: The Dacice Region case study, Czechia. Geographia Technica, 14, 84-96. Skole, D. (1996). Land use and land cover change (LUCC), the earth observer, reprint from Global Change Newsletter, 25. Taubenbock, H., Esch, T., Felbier, A., Wiesner, M., Roth, A., & Dech, S. (2012). Monitoring urbanization in mega cities from space. Remote Sensing of Environment, 117, 162-176. Tonini, M., Parente, J., & Pereira, M.G. (2018). Global assessment of rural-urban interface in Portugal related to land cover changes. Natural Hazards and Earth System Sciences, 18, 1647-1664. Yiran, G.A.B., Kusimi, J.M., & Kufogbe, S.K. (2012). A synthesis of remote sensing and local knowledge approaches in land degradation assessment in the Bawku East District, Ghana. International Journal of Applied Earth Observation, 14, 204-213. Zarandian, A., Badamfirouz, J., Musazadeh, R., Rahmati, A., & Azimi, S.B. (2018). Scenario modeling for spatial-temporal change detection of carbon storage and sequestration in a forested landscape in Northern Iran. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 190 (8), 474.