Irak’ta kimlik meselesi çoğunlukla yapaylık varsayımı üzerinden tartışılmaktadır. Bu ana akım yapaylık tezi, devlet-altı ve devlet-üstü kimlikleri önceleyerek devlet kimliğinin yokluğunu veya güçsüzlüğünü ispatlamaktan ziyade bu kimliğin üstünü örtmektedir. Bu makale, Irak’ta devlet kimliğinin mevcudiyetini, nüfuzunu ve kapsamını tarihsel ve güncel yansımaları üzerinden araştırmaktadır. Makale, Iraklılığın diğer aidiyet boyutlarının yanında bir alternatif teşkil edip etmediğini, bu kimliğin hangi yollarla kurgulandığını ve siyasî ve toplumsal olarak nasıl bir karşılığa sahip olduğunu araştırmaktadır. Bu anlamda, Irak siyasetini ve toplumunu tarihsel olarak okumanın ana paradigması olan yapaylık tezine karşılık Iraklılık kimliği üzerinde konumlandırılan bir bakışın Irak’ta kimliğin tarihini alternatif bir yoldan okuma imkânı verdiği ve alternatif bir kimlik tarihi ortaya çıkardığı savunulmaktadır. Bu okuma neticesinde bu kimlik tarihine dair birbiriyle alakalı dört farklı sonuca ulaşılmaktadır: İlk olarak, incelenen tarih içerisinde Iraklılığın önemli bir ideolojik/kültürel etken olarak hazır bulunduğu görülmektedir. İkinci olarak, Iraklılığın Irak’taki diğer aidiyet boyutlarıyla çoğu zaman bir etkileşim içerisinde olduğu gözlemlenmektedir. Üçüncü olarak, dönemlere ve aktörlere bağlı biçimde Iraklılığın kurgulanışında önemli farklılaşmalar tespit edilmektedir. Dördüncü olarak, Iraklılığın devletin ve seçkinlerin politikalarının ötesinde toplumsal yayılımı gözetilmektedir.
The issue of identity in Iraq has been debated usually through the lens of the artificiality assumption. This mainstream thesis assumes an absence or weakness of the state/national identity, and prioritizes sub-state and supra-state identities. This article examines the existence, scope and content of the national identity in Iraq through its historical and current manifestations. It questions whether the Iraqi identity has constituted an alternative dimension of belonging among the multiple identities of Iraq, in which ways this identity is imagined and constructed, and how it is performed in social and political domains. In this context, it argues that an examination of the Iraqi identity gives an alternative reading of the history of identity in Iraq. Such a reading draws four interrelated conclusions: First, the Iraqi identity has been an important ideological/cultural factor in Iraqi history. Second, Iraqiness has often been in interaction with other identity dimensions. Third, there have been significant differentiations of the imaginations of the Iraqi identity depending on the period and actors. Last, the Iraqi identity has extended beyond the policies of the state and elites, and has expanded into the Iraqi society.
Abdi, Kamyar. “From Pan-Arabism to Saddam Hussein’s Cult of Personality: Ancient Mesopotamia and Iraqi National Ideology.” Journal of Social Archaeology 8, no. 1 (2008): 51-76.
Abdullah, Thabit A. J. Dictatorship, Imperialism and Chaos: Iraq since 1989. London and New York: Zed Books, 2006.
Anderson, Liam, and Gareth Stansfield. The Future of Iraq: Dictatorship, Democracy, or Division?. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2004.
Anscombe, Frederick F. “The Ottoman Empire in Recent International Politics - I: The Case of Kuwait.” The International History Review 28, no. 3 (2006): 537-559.
Baram, Amatzia. “Mesopotamian Identity in Ba’thi Iraq.” Middle Eastern Studies 19, no. 4 (1983): 426-455.
Baram, Amatzia. “Qawmiyya and Wataniyya in Ba’thi Iraq: The Search for a New Balance.” Middle Eastern Studies 19, no. 2 (1983): 188-200.
Baram, Amatzia. “Territorial Nationalism in the Middle East.” Middle Eastern Studies 26, no. 4 (1990): 425-448.
Baram, Amatzia. Culture, History and Ideology in the Formation of Ba’thist Iraq, 1968-89. London: Palgrave Macmillan, 1991.
Baram, Amatzia. “A Case of Imported Identity: The Modernizing Secular Ruling Elites of Iraq and the Concept of Mesopotamian-Inspired Territorial Nationalism, 1922-1992.” Poetics Today 15, no. 2 (1994): 281-292.
Batatu, Hanna. The Old Social Classes and the Revolutionary Movements in Iraq: A Study of Iraq’s Old Landed and Commercial Classes and its Communists, Ba’thists, and Free Officers. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1978.
Can, Serra. “The Iraqi Identity: Faisal’s Unsolved Legacy.” Trames: A Journal of the Humanities and Social Sciences 22 no. 4 (2018): 389-405.
Catherwood, Christopher. Churchill’s Folly: How Winston Churchill Created Modern Iraq. New York: Carrol & Graf, 2004.
Cleveland, William L. The Making of an Arab Nationalist: Ottomanism and Arabism in the Life and Thought of Sati’ al-Husri. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1971.
Danilovich, Alex. Iraqi Federalism and the Kurds: Learning to Live Together. Surrey: Ashgate Publishing, 2014.
Dawisha, Adeed. “Democratic Attitudes and Practices in Iraq, 1921-1958.” Middle East Journal 59, no. 1 (2005): 11-30.
Dawisha, Adeed. “The Prospects for Democracy in Iraq: Challenges and Opportunities.” Third World Quarterly 26, no. 4-5 (2005): 723-737.
Dawisha, Adeed, and Larry Diamond. “Iraq’s Year of Voting Dangerously.” Journal of Democracy 17, no. 2 (2006): 89-103.
Dawisha, Adeed. “The Unraveling of Iraq: Ethnosectarian Preferences and State Performance in Historical Perspective.” Middle East Journal 62, no. 2 (2008): 219-230.
Dawisha, Adeed. Iraq: A Political History from Independence to Occupation. Princeton and New York: Princeton University Press, 2009.
Dawisha, Adeed. “National Identity and Sub-State Sectarian Loyalties in Iraq.” International Journal of Contemporary Iraqi Studies 4, no. 3 (2010): 243-256.
Dawisha, Adeed. “Iraq: A Vote Against Sectarianism.” Journal of Democracy 21, no. 3 (2010): 26-40.
Dawisha, Adeed. “Identity and Political Survival in Saddam’s Iraq.” Middle East Journal 53, no. 4 (1999): 553-567.
Dawood, Ismaeel. “Moats, Walls, and the Future of Iraqi National Identity.” Working Paper, Istituto Affari Internazionali, 2016.
Dodge, Toby. Inventing Iraq: The Failure of Nation-Building and a History Denied. New York: Columbia University Press, 2003.
Doyle, Damian, and Tristan Dunning. “Recognizing Fragmented Authority: Towards a Post-Westphalian Security Order in Iraq.” Small Wars & Insurgencies 29, no. 3 (2018): 537-559.
Eland, Ivan. Partitioning for Peace: An Exit Strategy for Iraq. Oakland: The Independent Institute, 2009.
Eppel, Michael. “The Hikmat Sulayman-Bakir Sidqi Government in Iraq, 1936-37, and the Palestine Question.” Middle Eastern Studies 24, no. 1 (1988): 25-41.
Eppel, Michael. “The Elite, the Efendiyya, and the Growth of Nationalism and Pan-Arabism in Hashemite Iraq, 1921-1958.” International Journal of Middle East Studies 30, no. 2 (1998): 227-250.
Franzen, Johan. “The Problem of Iraqi Nationalism.” National Identities 13, no. 3 (2011): 217-234.
Galbraith, Peter W. The End of Iraq: How American Incompetence Created a War Without End. New Jersey: Simon & Schuster, 2006.
Gunter, Michael M. The Kurds of Iraq: Tragedy and Hope. New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1992.
Haddad, Fanar, and Sajjad Rizvi. “Fitting Baghdad in.” In An Iraq of its Regions: Cornerstones of a Federal Democracy, edited by Reidar Visser and Gareth Stansfield, 51-74. London: Hurst & Company, 2007.
Haddad, Fanar. “The Terrorists of Today are the Heroes of Tomorrow: The Anti-British and anti-American Insurgencies in Iraqi History.” Small Wars & Insurgencies 19, no. 4 (2008): 451-483.
Haddad, Fanar. Sectarianism in Iraq: Antagonistic Visions of Unity. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2011.
Hinnebusch, Raymond. “State Deconstruction in Iraq and Syria.” PVS Politische Vierteljahresschrift 57, no. 4 (2016): 560-585.
Kirmanj, Sherko. “The Clash of Identities in Iraq.” In Iraq Between Occupations: Perspectives from 1920 to the Present, edited by Amatzia Baram, Achim Rohde, and Ronen Reidel, 43-59. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2010.
Lawson, Fred H. “Syria’s Mutating Civil War and Its Impact on Turkey, Iraq and Iran.” International Affairs 90, no. 6 (2014): 1351-1365.
Leenders, Reinoud. “Strong States in a Troubled Region: Anatomies of a Middle Eastern Regional Conflict Formation.” In Troubled Regions and Failing States: The Clustering and Contagion of Armed Conflict, edited by Kristian Berg Harpviken, 171-195. Oslo, Emerald Group Publishing, 2010.
Lukitz, Liora. “Nationalism in Post-Imperial Iraq: The Complexities of Collective Identity.” Critical Review 21, no. 1 (2009): 5-20.
Marr, Phebe. “One Iraq or Many: What Has Happened to Iraqi Identity.” In Iraq Between Occupations: Perspectives from 1920 to the Present, edited by Amatzia Baram, Achim Rohde, and Ronen Reidel, 15-41. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2010.
Marr, Phebe. The Modern History of Iraq. Colorado: Westview Press, 2012.
Moaddel, Mansoor. “Religious Regimes and Prospects for Liberal Politics: Futures of Iran, Iraq, and Saudi Arabia.” Research Report, Population Studies Center, 2008.
Moaddel, Mansoor, Mark Tessler and Ronald Inglehart. “Foreign Occupation and National Pride: The Case of Iraq.” Research Report, Population Studies Center, 2008.
Sluglett, Peter. Britain in Iraq: Contriving King and Country. London and New York: I.B.Tauris, 2007.
al-Tikriti, Nabil. “Ottoman Iraq.” The Journal of the Historical Society 7, no. 2 (2007): 201-211.
Tripp, Charles. A History of Iraq. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2007.
Visser, Reidar. “Proto-Political Conceptions of Iraq in Late Ottoman Times.” International Journal of Contemporary Iraqi Studies 3, no. 2 (2009): 143-154.
Zubaida, Sami. “The Fragments Imagine the Nation: The Case of Iraq.” International Journal of Middle East Studies 34, no. 2 (2002): 205-215.
Don Riddell, and Eoghan Macguire. “Ten Years On: How Iraq’s Soccer Stars Brought Warring Nation Together.” CNN, July 28, 2017, https://edition.cnn.com/2017/07/28/football/iraq-asia-cup-2007-anniversary/index.html.
International Republican Institute. “Survey of Iraqi Public Opinion.” Accessed December 11, 2018. http://www.iri.org/sites/default/files/2004-09-07-Iraq%20Poll%20July%20August.pdf.
“Iraq in Historic Asian Cup Win,” Al Jazeera English, July 29, 2007, https://www.aljazeera.com/focus/2007afcasiancup/2007/07/2008525184927362150.html.
“Iraq PM Slams U.S. Officer’s Remarks on Partition,” Al Arabiya English, August 13, 2015, http://english.alarabiya.net/en/News/middle-east/2015/08/13/Departing-U-S-army-chief-Iraq-may-have-to-be-partitioned.html.
Marco Vicenzino, “Iraq’s Muddled Future,” Huffington Post, April 17, 2015, https://www.huffingtonpost.com/marco-vicenzino/iraqs-muddled-future_b_7081106.html.