Digital Transformation in Museum Management: The Usage of Information and Communication Technologies

Today, museums are undergoing a process of digital transformation. Those museums able to properly manage this process will hold the potential of following and analyzing consumer perceptions and emotions. Information and Communication technologies are an important part of this digital transformation. This study aims to put forth the relationship between digital technologies and museums in terms of participatory technologies. The focus of the study will analyze at which stage private museums in Istanbul are at in the digital transformation process. The study is made up of three steps in order to measure the level at which museums utilize information and communication technologies. The first step takes place prior to the museum visit and analyzes the museums’ corporate websites. The second step is in relation to the visit of the museum, and defines the information and communication technologies available for visitors. The final step determines the social media presence of the museums after the visitation. The study analyzes the degree to which information and communication technologies are used by museums under the supervision of Turkey’s Ministry of Culture and Tourism’s General Directorate for Cultural Heritage and Museums in Istanbul. As a result of the study,the museums have been categorized under four categories: sleepers, social-oriented, visit-oriented and experience-oriented. Of the 62 museums within the framework of the study, 24% are sleepers, 36% social-oriented, 24% visit-oriented and 16% are experience-oriented. It is believed that the study will serve as a guide for museums which took part in the study so that they can increase the participatory experience of visitors.

Müze Yönetiminde Dijital Dönüşüm: Bilgi ve İletişim Teknolojilerini Kullanma Düzeyleri

Günümüzde, müzeler dijital dönüşüm sürecindedir. Bu süreci iyi yönetebilen müzeler, tüketici algılarını ve duygularını takip etme ve analiz etme potansiyeline sahip olacaktır. Bilgi ve iletişim teknolojileri (BİT), dijital dönüşümün önemli bir parçasıdır. Bu çalışma katılımcı teknolojiler bağlamında dijital teknolojiler ve müzeler arasındaki ilişkiyi ortaya koymayı amaçlamaktadır. Araştırmanın odak noktası, İstanbul’da yer alan özel müzelerin dijital dönüşüm sürecinin hangi aşamasında olduğunun analiz edilmesidir. Araştırma, müzelerin bilgi ve iletişim teknolojilerini kullanma düzeylerini ölçümlemek için üç aşamadan oluşmuştur. İlk aşama olan ziyaret öncesi aşamada, müzelerin kurumsal web siteleri incelenmiştir. İkinci olarak ziyaret aşamasında, izleyicileresunulan bilgi ve iletişim teknolojileri hizmetleri tanımlanmıştır. Son aşama olan ziyaret sonrası aşamada ise müzelerin sosyal medyadaki varlıkları tespit edilmiştir. Araştırma kapsamında, T.C. Kültür ve Turizm Bakanlığı Kültür Varlıkları ve Müzeler GenelMüdürlüğü denetiminde İstanbul’da hizmet veren müzelerin, bilgi ve iletişim teknolojilerini kullanma düzeyleri incelenmiştir. Araştırma sonucunda müzeler, pasif, sosyal odaklı, ziyaret odaklı ve deneyim odaklı olmak üzere dört türde analiz edilmiştir. Araştırma kapsamına alınan 62 müzenin yüzde 24’ü pasif, yüzde 36’sı sosyal odaklı, yüzde 24’ü ziyaret odaklı ve yüzde 16’sı deneyim odaklı olarak tespit edilmiştir. Çalışmanın, İstanbul’da yer alan müzeler özelinde, dijital dönüşümün gerektirdiği değişimleri saptayarak ziyaretçilerin deneyimlerine daha fazla katılım sağlayacak yönetimsel bir iyileştirme süreci konusunda yol gösterici olacağı düşünülmektedir.

Kaynakça

Alpay, E. (2019).Hak ve özgürlük gazetesinin Bulgaristan’da Türk kimliğinin şekillenmesindeki rolü (1991–1995). Turkish Studies,14(7),3615-3629. http://dx.doi.org/10.29228/TurkishStudies.29444

Alletto, S., Cucchiara, R., Fiore, G.D., Mainetti, L., Mighali, V., Patrono, L. & Serra, G. (2016). An indoor location-aware system for an iot-based smart museum. IEEE Internet of Things Journal,3(1),244-253. http://doi.org/10.1109/JIOT.2015.2506258

Ames, P.J. (1989). Marketing museums: means or master of the mission. Curator: The Museum Journal,32(1),5–15. http://doi.org/10.1111/j.2151-6952.1989.tb00702.x

Berghaus, S. & Back, A.(2016).Stages in digital business transformation: Results of an empirical maturity study. 10th Mediterranean Conference on Information Systems (MCIS 2016),4-6 September,Cyprus Paphos,1-17.

Bertacchini, E. & Morando, F.(2013). The future of museums in the digital age: New models for access to and use of digital collections. International Journal of Arts Management,15(2),60-72.

Betchoo, N.K.(2016). Digital transformation and its impact on human resource management: a case analysis of two unrelated businesses in the mauritian public service.2016 IEEE International Conference on Emerging Technologies and Innovative Business Practices for the Transformation of Societies,3-6 August Mauritius, Balaclava. http://doi.org/10.1109/EmergiTech.2016.7737328

Buhalis, D. &Amaranggana, A.(2014). Smart tourism destinations inInformation and Communication Technologies in Tourism 2014,ed. Zheng Xiang and Iis Tussyadiah, Springer,553-564. http://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-03973-2_40

Buhalis, D. &Amaranggana, A.(2015). Smart tourism destinations enhancing tourism experience through personalisation of servicesin Information and Communication Technologies in Tourism 2015,ed. Iis Tussyadiah and Alessandro Inversini,Springer,377-389. http://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-14343-9_28

Cano, J., Cano, J.C., Calafate, C.T. & Manzoni, P.(2010). Experiences in developing ubiquitous applications in Designing Solutions-Based Ubiquitous and Pervasive Computing: New Issues and Trends,ed. Francisco Milton Mendes Neto and Pedro Fernandes Ribeiro Neto Hershey, IGI Global,97-112. http://doi.org/10.4018/978-1-61520-843-2.ch005

Colbert, A., Yee, N. &George G.(2016). The digital workforce and the workplace of the future.Academy of Management Journal,59(3),731-739. http://doi.org/10.5465/amj.2016.4003

De Bernardi, P., Gilli, M. &Colomba, C. (2018). Unlocking museum digital innovation. Are 4.0 Torino museums? in Smart Tourism,ed. Valter Cantino, Francesca Culasso and Gabriella Racca,McGraw-Hill,453-471.

De Bernardi, P. &Gilli, M. (2019). Museum digital innovation: The role of digital communication strategies in Torino museums. in Handbook of research on examining cultural policies through digital communication,ed. B. Önay Doğan and D. Gül Ünlü, IGI Global. 161-181. http://doi.org/10.4018/978-1-5225-6998-5.ch008

Fernandéz, L.A.(1995). Museología: Introducción a la Teoría y Práctica del Museo.ISTMO.

Ganguly, A. (2015). Optimization of IT and digital transformation: Strategic imperative for creating a new value delivery mechanism and sustainable future in organization. European Journal of Business and Innovation Research,3(2),1-13

Griffin, D., Abraham, M.&Crawford, J. (1999). Effective management of museums in the 1990s. Curator: The Museum Journal42: 37-53. http://doi.org/10.1111/j.2151-6952.1999.tb01127.x

Grimm, R. (2004). One.world: Experiences with a pervasive computing architecture. IEEE Pervasive Computing,3(3),22-30. http://doi.org/10.1109/mprv.2004.1321024

Hess, T., Matt, C., Benlian, A. &Wiesböck, F. (2016). Options for formulating a digital transformation strategy.MIS Quaterly Executive,15(2),123–139

Holland, P. &Bardoel, A. (2016). The impact of technology on work in the 21st century: Exploring the smart and dark side.The International Journal of Human Resource Management,27(21),2579-2581. http://doi.org/10.1080/09585192.2016.1238126

Hookk, D. (2014). Illusion of attendance and accessibility: technological innovations in museums.Her&Mus Heritage & Museography,6(2),68-71.

Hrustek, L., Tomičić Furjan, M. &Pihir, I. (2019). Influence of digital transformation drivers on business model creation.2019 42nd International Convention on Information and Communication Technology, Electronics and Microelectronics (MIPRO),20-24 May,IEEE, 1304-1308.

ICOM. https://icom.museum/en/activities/standards-guidelines/museum-definition/ Accessed: 20.08.2020.

Johnson, N.F. (2014). Symbolic instruments and the internetmediation of knowledge and expertise. Continuum,28(3),371-382. http://doi.org/10.1080/10304312.2014.893986

Kane, G.C., Palmer, D.,Phillips, A.N., Kiron D. &Buckley, N. (2016). Aligning the organization for its digital future. MIT Sloan Management Review and Deloitte University Press,July.

Kızılhan, T.(2017). Türkiye’deki sanal müzelerin içerik analizi tekniği ile değerlendirilmesi. Yeni Medya Elektronik Dergi-eJNM,1(2),149-156.

Kindberg, T. &Fox, A. (2002). System software for ubiquitous computing. IEEE Pervasive Computing,1(1),70-81. http://doi.org/10.1109/MPRV.2002.993146

Kuusik, A., Roche, S. & Weis, F. (2009). SMARTMUSEUM: Cultural content recommendation system for mobile users. Fourth International Conference on Computer Sciences and Convergence Information Technology,24-26 November,IEEE,477-482. http://doi.org/10.1109/ICCIT.2009.257

Langan, D., Schott, N., Wykes, T., Szeto, J., Kolpin, S., Lopez, C.&Smith, N. (2016). Students' use of personal technologies in the university classroom: analysing the perceptions of the digital generation. Technology Pedagogy and Education,25(1),101-117. http://doi.org/10.1080/1475939X.2015.1120684

McLean, F.(1997). Marketing the Museum. Routledge.

Radbourne, J. (1997). Creative Nation –a policy for leaders or followers? An evaluation of Australia's 1994 cultural policy statement. Journal of Arts Management, Law and Society,26(4),271-283. http://doi.org/10.1080/10632921.1997.9942966

Rentschler, R.&Geursen, G. (1999). Unlocking art museum management: Myths and realities for contemporary times. International Journal of Arts Management,2(1),9–21.

Rentschler, R.(2001). Is creativity a matter for cultural leaders? International Journal of Arts Management,3(3),13–24.

Rogers, B.(2016). “Why 84% of companies fail at digital transformation”Forbeshttps://www.forbes.com/sites/brucerogers/2016/01/07/why-84-of-companies-fail-at-digital-transformation/#7530b4e9397b Erişim tarihi: 20.08.2020.

Seeger, G. &Bick, M.(2013). Mega and consumer trends-towards car-independent mobile applications.2013 International Conference on Mobile Business,27.

Sonnentag, S., Binnewies, C. &Mojza, E.J. (2008). “Did you have a nice evening?” a day-level study on recovery experiences, sleep, and affect. Journal of Applied Psychology,93(3),674-684. http://doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.93.3.674

Tilson, D., Lyytinen, K. &Sørensen, C. (2010). Digital infrastructures: the missing is research agenda. Information Systems Research,21(4),748–759. http://doi.org/10.1287/isre.1100.0318

Volkerling, M. (1996). Deconstructing the difference engine: a theory of cultural policy.The European Journal of Cultural Policy,2(2),189–213. http://doi.org/10.1080/10286639609358014

Kaynak Göster