Türk Ulusal Gazete Haberlerinde Şizofreniye Yönelik Damgalama

Şizofreniye yönelik toplumsal algının oluşmasında basın yayınlarının etkisi inkâr edilemez. Bu araştırma ile ulusal tirajı yüksek günlük gazetelerde yer alan “şizofren” ile ilgili haberlerin sayısı ve niteliğinin incelenmesiamaçlanmıştır. İçerik analizi yöntemi ile niteliksel olarak planlanan bu araştırmada 01.04.2014 ile 01.04.2019tarihleri arasında yayınlanan ve tirajı yüksek olan yedi gazete arşivi “şizofren” anahtar sözcüğü kullanılarakincelenmiştir. Beş yılı kapsayan incelemede toplam 626 habere ulaşılmıştır. Haberler içerik bakımındanbenzerliklerine göre ayrılmıştır. İçerikleri araştırmacılar tarafından beş ana tema (suç, bilimsel içerik, sosyalaktivite, mecazi kullanım ve dergi) altında toplanmıştır. Daha sonra damgalamayla ilişkili olduğu düşünülen ikitema (metaforik kullanım ve suç) yeniden analiz edilmiştir ve suç teması 11 alt tema halinde gruplandırılmıştır.Bu alt temalar, cinayet, dehşet, intihar, rehin alma, cinnet, katliam, yaralanma, kundaklama, vahşet, taciz vediğerdir. Haberlerin % 30,7’si 2015 yılında, % 39,3’ü Milliyet gazetesinde, % 66,3’ü gazetenin gündemsayfasında yayınlanmıştır. Gazetelerde yer alan haberler incelendiğinde % 58,1’inin olumsuz duygusal tondaolduğu, % 48,9’unun konusunun suç olduğu, % 11,7’sinde şizofreninin metaforik olarak kullanıldığı, %51,9’unun haber başlığında “şizofren” bulunduğu saptanmıştır. Haber başlığı içinde “vahşet, cinayet, dehşet,katliam, cinnet vb.” kelimelere % 46,3 oranında yer verildiği ve bu kelimelerden en çok % 53,7 oranında“cinayet” kelimesinin kullanıldığı saptanmıştır. Hastaların fotoğraflarının gazete haberleri içinde % 33,7oranında, kimlik bilgilerinin de % 53,7 oranında verildiği görülmüştür. Sonuç olarak yapılan incelemedeşizofreni ile ilgili haberlerin çoğunlukla suç içeriğiyle, olumsuz duygusal tonda, “cinayet” başlığı atılarakkullanıldığı, bu haberlerinin olumsuz içeriği ile şizofreniye yönelik olumsuz algıya ve damgalamaya katkısağladığı söylenebilir. Bu bilgiler ışığında toplumun şizofreniye yönelik bilgilendirilmesinde basın yayınlarınındamgalamayı engelleyecek şekilde olması, bu konuda gereken denetimlerin ve ruh sağlığı derneklerinin bualanda bilinçlendirici çalışmalarının artması önerilmektedir.

Stigmatization for Schizophrenia in Turkish National Newspaper News

The contribution of press publications cannot be denied in the social perception of schizophrenia. The purpose of this study was to investigate the number and quality of news about “schizophrenia” in high-selling national daily newspapers. This research planned by the qualitative content analysis method, seven newspaper archives which were published between 01.04.2014 and 01.04.2019 were analyzed by using the keyword. In the five-year review, a total of 626 news items were found. The contents of the news were separated according to their similarities. The contents were collected by the researchers under five main themes (crime, scientific content, social activity, metaphorical use, and magazine). Two themes (metaphorical use and crime) thought to be related to stigmatization were analyzed again. The crime theme was grouped eleven sub-themes. These sub-themes were murder, fear / horror, suicide, hostage-taking, insanity, masacre, injury, arson, brutality, abuse, and others. 30.7 % of the news was published in 2015, 39.3% in Milliyet newspaper, and 66.3% in the newspaper's agenda page. When the news in newspapers were examined, it was found that 58‘1% was in negative emotional tone, 48.9% was a crime, 11.7% schizophrenia is used metaphorically, and 51.9% had “schizophrenia” in the news headline. In the news title, it was found that 46.3% of the words “savagery, murder, horror, massacre, insanity, etc.” were used and 53.7% of these words were used with the word “murder”. It was seen that the photos of the patients were given 33.7 % in the newspaper news and 53.7% in the identity information. In conclusion, it can be said that the news about schizophrenia is mostly used with the content of crime, negative emotional tone and the title was “murder”, it contributes to the negative perception and stigmatization of schizophrenia with its negative content. In the light of this information, it is suggested that the press publications should be in a way to prevent stigmatization in informing the public about schizophrenia, the necessary audits should be increased and the awareness-raising activities of mental health associations in this field should be increased.

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