SOSYAL BİLGİLER ÖĞRETMEN ADAYLARININ IŞIK KİRLİLİĞİ HAKKINDAKİ GÖRÜŞLERİ
Bu çalışmanın amacı Sosyal Bilgiler öğretmeni adaylarının ışık kirliliği hakkındaki görüşlerini belirlemektir. Bu araştırma nitel araştırma yöntemine göre tasarlanmıştır. Araştırmada betimsel tarama yöntemi kullanılmıştır. Çalışmada amaçlı örnekleme yöntemlerinden maksimum çeşitlilik örneklemesi kullanılmıştır. Çalışmada, Ağrı İbrahim Çeçen Üniversitesi Eğitim Fakültesi Sosyal Bilgiler Öğretmenliği bölümünde 1., 2., 3. ve 4. sınıflardan oluşan toplam 40 öğrenci yer almıştır. Verilerin toplanmasında araştırmacılar tarafından geliştirilen 6 açık uçlu sorudan oluşan yarı yapılandırılmış görüşme formu kullanılmıştır. Görüşme formunda yer alacak sorular hazırlandıktan sonra uzman görüşüne başvurulmuştur. Uzman görüşü alındıktan sonra sorular tekrar düzenlenerek 20 öğretmen adayı üzerinde pilot uygulama yapılmıştır. Pilot uygulaması yapılan görüşme formu düzenlenerek uzman görüşüne tekrar sunulmuştur. Uzmanlardan gelen geri dönüt alındıktan sonra görüşme formuna son şekli verilip 2016-2017 eğitimöğretim yılının bahar yarıyılında uygulanmıştır. Verilerin analizinde betimsel analiz yöntemi kullanılmıştır. Çalışmanın sonucunda, Sosyal Bilgiler öğretmen adaylarının genel olarak ışık kirliliği hakkında bilgi sahibi oldukları fakat bazı öğretmen adaylarının konu hakkında bilgi sahibi olmadıkları tespit edilmiştir. Sosyal Bilgiler Öğretmen adayları kirliliğin genel olarak canlı ve cansız varlıklara zarar verdiğini, ışık kirliliğinin kirlilik çeşitleri arasında yer aldığını belirmişlerdir. Işık kirliliğinin sebepleri arasında aşırı ışık kullanımı, evlerden ve binalardan taşan ışıklar, doğru ışık kullanımının yapılmamasını gösteren öğretmen adayları, ışık kirliliğinin hem insanlar hem de canlı ve cansız çevre üzerinde önemli olumsuz etkilere neden olduğunu belirtmişlerdir. Öğretmen adayları ışık kirliliğinin etkilerini azaltmak için insanların bilinçlendirilmesi gerektiği konusunda görüş belirtmiştir. Bazı öğretmen adaylarının ise bu konuda bilgi sahibi olmamaları dikkat çekici bir sonuçtur
VIEWS OF THE SOCIAL TEACHER CANDIDATES ABOUT LIGHT POLLUTION
The purpose of this study is to determine the views of social studies of teachers candidates about light pollution. This research is designed by using qualitative research method. In the research, case studies that is one of the qualitative research methods is used. Case study is a kind of research that offers a rich perspective on analyzing the learning, learning and management implications of what educators and students have gained through experiences they have gained. Maximum diversity one of the purpose sampling methods sampling was used. A totally 40 students from 1st, 2nd, 3rd and 4th grades were included in the Social Studies Teaching Department of Ağrı İbrahim Çeçen University Faculty of Education. A semi-structured interview form consisting of 6 open-ended questions developed by researchers was used to collect the data. After the questions that take place in the interview form were prepared, expert opinion was consulted. After the expert opinion was received, the questions were revised and piloted on 20 teacher candidates. Pilot application form was prepared and presented again to expert opinion. After receiving the feedback from the experts, the final form was given to the interview form and applied in the spring semester of 2016-2017 academic year. In the analysis of the data, a descriptive analysis method was used. As a result of the study, it was determined that social science teacher candidates generally have information about light pollution but having this information is not enough for some of them. Social Studies Teacher candidates have shown that pollution damages living and nonliving assets in general and that light pollution is among pollution types. Excessive use of light among the causes of light pollution, lights overflowing from houses and buildings, and prospective teachers showing the absence of correct light use, have indicated that light pollution causes significant negative effects on both humans and the living and nonliving environment. Teacher candidates have expressed the opinion that people need to be conscious in order to reduce the effects of light pollution. It is remarkable that some teacher candidates should not have knowledge in this regard The environment is, in its most general sense, the whole system of natural and human elements in which human beings live and which they constantly utilize,in which the history is in relation and interact with each other (Kocakurt and Güven, 2005, 34-38). Although human beings have lived in harmony with their environment for centuries, the environment has begun to emerge as a problem when environmental conditions have started threatening nutrition and reproduction, the two important functions of living. The most important cause of the environmental problems that disturb the balance between man and nature is the great industrial revolution. Light pollution, which is an important type of pollution, has also recently been involved in environmental pollution. Light pollution is caused by incorrect outdoor lighting applications. A good lighting installation is expected to illuminate only the areas that are intended for lighting purposes. However, this installation leads to light pollution when it goes out of the areas that need to be illuminated and sends extra light to the areas that need to be illuminated or illuminate other areas (Onuk, 2008, 24). Until the beginning of the 20th century, together with developing technology, the concept of light pollution, which did not make any sense, has been caused by some mistakes that occurred in lighting designs. The light pollution, which has become a major problem of modern cities, was thought to have influenced astronomers observing the sky at first when it took its place in architectural illumination. The aim of this study is to determine the views of pre-service teachers of Social Studies about light pollution. This research is designed according to qualitative research method. Qualitative Descriptive Study was used in the study. In these researches, purposeful sampling methods are used which do not carry out the purpose of generalization to the universe but to obtain rich data (Büyüköztürk, 2014, 91-92). In this direction, convenience sampling method is used in the study. In the study, a total of 40 students from 1st, 2nd, 3rd and 4th grade in the Social Studies Teaching Department of Faculty of Education, İbrahim Çeçen University of Ağrı were included. A semi-structured interview form consisting of 6 open-ended questions developed by researchers was used to collect the data. After the questions that will take place in the interview form were prepared, expert opinion was consulted. After the expert opinion was received, the questions were revised and piloted on 20 preservice teachers. The interview form whose pilot scheme was completed was edited and expert opinion was re-consulted. After receiving the feedback from the experts, the final form was given to the interview form and applied in the spring semester of 2016-2017 academic year. Descriptive analysis method was used to analysis of data. During the analysis of the data, 20 interview forms were filled out as they were misfilled and the opinions of 40 teacher candidates were included. Pre-service social studies teachers evaluated the concept of pollution that pollution is as a result of the destruction of natural conditions by people, negatively affects the environment, living and inanimate assets in general. On generally analyzing the views of preservice Social Studies teachers on pollution types, it was seen that all of the pre-service teachers who participated in the study indicated environmental pollution. Noise, light, air, water, soil pollutions are among the pollution types mentioned by most of the teacher candidates. The fact that most of the pre-service teachers expressed that the light pollution is among pollution types is of higher importance as it indicates that they have information about light pollution. On analyzing the views of the pre-service teachers on whether the light pollution is an environmental problem, it is seen that 38 pre-service teachers considered light pollution as an environmental problem as it damages living and non-living assets, damages economy and environment. This indicates that the pre-service teachers participating in the study are aware that light pollution is an environmental problem. . It can be said from this result that most of the pre-service teachers participating in the study are aware of the light pollution and some preservice teachers do not have enough knowledge about the subject. Pre-service social studies teachers stated that unnecessary light use, unconscious people, advertising panels, lights overflowing from houses and buildings, technological developments, the use of commercial light and using poor quality light cause light pollution. The opinions expressed by the pre-service teachers participating in the study on the causes of light pollution show that they have knowledge about light pollution. Pre-service Social Studies teachers stated that light pollution has adverse effects on living and non-living assets, leading to various diseases such as eye diseases in humans, adverse effects of excessive light on the economy and causing traffic accidents and they have offered suggestions in general to prevent light pollution like avoiding unnecessary lighting, making people aware of this issue, making correct lighting, saving and collective light-off activities.
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