PSİKOLOJİK DANIŞMADA POSTMODERNİST BİR SÜPERVİZYON YÖNTEMİ: YANSITICI EKİP UYGULAMASI

Bu çalışma, Batı'da 1980'li yıllardan bu yana aile ve evlilik danışması alanında kullanılan yansıtıcı ekip yönteminin psikolojik danışma sürecinde kullanımı, uygulama prosedürü, sürece katkıları ve sınırlılıkları konularında bilgi vermek amacıyla hazırlanmıştır. Bu yenilikçi yaklaşımda süpervizörler, psikolojik danışma ortamında bulunmakta ve süreci takip etmektedirler. Yansıtıcı ekip belirli aralıklarla süreç ile ilgili hem psikolojik danışmana hem de danışan(lar)a kendi aralarında konuşarak geribildirim vermektedir. Konuşma aralarının sonlanmasının ardından psikolojik danışman ve danışan(lar), yansıtıcı ekip tarafından verilen geribildirimler hakkında konuşmaktadırlar. Yansıtıcı Ekip tekniğini uygulamanın genel olarak üç temel kuralı bulunmaktadır. Bunlardan birincisi, düşüncelerin farklı olmasıdır. Yani, ne kadar farklı bakış açısı olursa psikolojik danışma süreci o denli olumluya doğru yönlenecektir. İkincisi yansımaların mutlaka danışanların pozitif güçlü yanlarına yönelik olması ve danışana değişme konusunda motivasyon sağlamak için düşüncelerini yansıtmasıdır. Sonuncusu ise yansıtıcı ekibin üyelerinin yorumlamalarında mutlaka bir farklılık yaratmaya yönelik geribildirimde bulunmalarıdır. Bu bağlamda yansıtıcı ekip danışanlara farklı bakış açıları kazandırmakta ve danışanda çok derin duygusal bir etkinin ortaya çıkmasına da yardımcı olmaktadır. Psikolojik danışmanlar açısından da danışmanların süreçte tıkandıkları noktalarda nasıl ilerleyebileceklerine ilişkin anında geribildirim verilmekte ve onlara psikolojik danışma becerilerini geliştirmeleri için yaşantısal öğrenme fırsatı sunulmaktadır. Sonuç olarak bu tekniğin Türkiye'de hem bireyle psikolojik danışma alanında hem de aile danışmanlığı alanında gerçekleştirilecek süpervizyon çalışmalarına katkı sağlayacağı düşünülmektedir

A POSTMODERN APPROACH TO PSYCHOLOGICAL COUNSELING: REFLECTING TEAM TECHNIQUE

The aim of this study is to provide information about the utilization and application procedure of reflecting team approach in counseling process as well as the contributions and limitations of this approach that has been implemented in marriage and family counseling in Western literature since 1980s. In this novel approach, supervisors are present in the counseling setting and follow the process. Reflecting teams periodically give feedback to both counselor and client(s) about the process. Psychological counselor and the client(s) discuss about this feedback. Through reflecting team applications, rapidly and profoundly advanced new information and realities emerge. Reflecting team method has three main rules that must be paid attention to while using in psychological counseling. According to the first rule, reflections must be various. That is, the more different perspectives members of the reflecting team present, the more improvement can be accessed in the counseling process. According to the second rule, reflections must focus on the positive aspects, i.e., strengths of the client(s). So, reflecting team must make reflections so as to provide the client with motivation to change by emphasizing positive aspects of them in the counseling process. Lastly, members of the reflecting team must give feedback in an attempt to make a difference while reflecting Reflecting teams provide client(s) with different perspectives and also facilitate the emergence of deep emotional influences in client(s). From the standpoint of psychological counselors, reflecting team process gives spontaneous feedback to counselors when they are choked up at certain points in the process and also presents experiential learning opportunities to counselors in order to improve their counseling skills. To conclude, this technique is assumed to provide contributions for both family counseling and individual counseling for psychology professions in Turkey

___

Anderson, T. (1987). The reflecting team: Dialogue and meta-dialogue in clinical work. Family Process, 26, 415-428.

Anderson, T. (1991). The reflecting team: Dialogues and dialogue about the dialogues. New York: Norton.

Andersen, T. (1992). Reflections on reflectioning with families. In S. McNamee & K. J. Gergen (Eds.), Therapy as social construction (pp. 54–68). London: Sage.

Andersen, T. (1993). See and hear, and be seen and heard. In S. Friedman (Ed.), The new language of change: Constructive collaboration in psychotherapy (pp. 303- 322). New York: Guilford Press.

Andersen, H., & Hoffman, L. (2007). Memories of Tom David Andersen: Friend, colleague, scholar, inspirer and rhizome. Family Process, 46, 571-574.

Anslow, K. (2013). Systemic family therapy using the reflecting team: The experiences of adults with learning disabilities. British Journal of Learning Disabilities, 42(3), 236-243.

Becvar, D. S., & Becvar, R. J. (2013). Family therapy: A systemic integration (eight edition). New Jersey: Pearson Education Inc.

Bertrando, P., & Gilli, G. (2010). Theories of change and the practice of systemic supervision. Mirrors and Reflections: Process of Systemic Supervision. (Editors) Burck, C., Daniel, G. Karnac Books.

Brownlee, K., Vis, J., & McKenna, A. (2009). Review of the reflecting team process: Strengths, challenges, and clinical implications. The Family Journal, 17(2), 139-145.

Carr, A. (2000). Family therapy: Concepts, process and practice. Chichester: Wiley.

Carr, A. (1998). Micheal White’s Narrative Therapy. Comtemporary Family Therapy, 20 (4), 485- 503.

Chang, J. (2010). The reflecting team: A training method for family counselors. The Family Journal: Counseling and Therapy for Couples and Families, 18, 36–44.

Conyne, R. K., Wilson, F. R., & Ward, D. E. (1997). Comprehensive group work: What it means & how to teach it. Alexandria: American Counseling Association.

Cox, J. A., Banez, L., Hawley, L. D., & Mostade, J. (2003). Use of the reflecting team process in the training of group workers, The Journal for Specialists in Group Work, 28(2), 89-105.

Dallos, R., & Draper, R. (2012). Aile terapisine giriş. (çev. Ş. Kesici ve C. Kiper) Ankara: Nobel Yayıncılık.

Davidson, J., Lax, W.E., Lussardi, D.J., Miller, D., & Ratheau, M. (1988). The reflecting team. Family Therapy Networker. 12(5), 44-46, 76-77.

Davidson, J., & Lussardi, D. J. (1991). Reflecting dialogues in supervision and training. In T. Andersen (Eds.), The reflecting team: Dialogues and dialogues about the dialogues (pp. 143- 154). New York: Norton.

Egeli, N. A., Brar, N., Larsen, D., & Yohani, S. (2014). Couples’ experiences of hope when participating in the reflecting team process: A case study. Contemporary Family Therapy, 36(1), 93-107.

Fong, M.L., Borders, L.D., Ethington, C.A., & Pitts, J.H. (1997). Becoming a counselor: A longitudinal study of student cognitive development. Counselor Education and Supervision, 37, 100-114.

Garrido-Fernández, M., Jaén-Rincón, P., & Garcia-Martínez, J. (2011). Evaluating a reflecting-team couples approach to problem gambling. Journal of Constructivist Psychology, 24(1), 1-29.

Griffith, J. L. Griffith, M. E., Krejmas, N., McLain, M., Mittal, D., Rains, J., & Tingle, C. (1992). Reflecting team consultations and their impact upon family therapy for somatic symptoms as coded by Structural Analysis of Social Behavior (SASB). Family Systems Medicine, 10(1), 53-58.

Goldenberg, I., & Goldenberg, H. (2008). Family therapy: An overview. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Publishing.

Haley, T. (2002). The fit between reflecting teams and a social constructionist approach. Journal of Systemic Therapies, 21(1), 20-40.

Hawley, L. D. (2006) Reflecting Teams and Microcounseling in beginning counselor training: Practice in collaboration. Journal of Humanistic Counseling, Education and Development, 45(2), 198- 207.

Hecker, L.L., & Wetchler, J.L. (2003). An introduction to marriage and family therapy. New York: Routledge Publishing.

Höger, C., Temme, M., Reiter, L., & Steiner, E. (1994). The reflecting team approach: Convergent results of two exploratory studies. Journal of Family Therapy, 16, 427-437.

Johnson, C., Waters, M., Webster, D., & Goldman, J. (1997). What do you think about what the team said? community. Contemporary family therapy, 19(1), 49-62. reflecting team as a virtual therapeutic

Karaırmak, Ö., & Bugay, A. (2010). Postmodern diyalog: Öyküsel psikolojik danışma. Türk Psikolojik Danışma ve Rehberlik Dergisi, 4(33), 24-36.

Kassis, J., & Matthews, W. (1987). When families and helpers do not want the mirror: A brief report of one team’s experience. Journal of Strategic and Systemic Therapies, 6(4), 33- 43.

Kellum, K. E. H. (2009). Structured reflecting teams in group supervision: A qualitative study with school counseling interns (Doctoral dissertation, The University of Iowa). Retrieved from https://search.proquest.com/docview/304901225?pq-origsite=gscholar

Kılıç, E. (2009). Aile terapileri. H. Türkçapar, & E. Köroğlu (Ed.), Psikoterapi yöntemleri: Kuramlar ve uygulama yönergeleri içinde (s. 229-273). Ankara: Hekimler Yayın Birliği.

Landis, L.L., & Young, M.E. (1994) The reflecting team in counselor education. Counselor Education and Supervision, 33(3), 210-218.

Lax, W.D. (1995). Offering reflections: Some theoretical and practical considerations. In S. Friedman (Eds.), The reflecting team in action: Collaboration practice in family therapy (pp. 145- 183). New York: Guilford Press.

Lever, H., & Gmeiner, A. (2000). Families leaving therapy after one or two sessions: A multiple descriptive case study. Contemporary Family Therapy: An International Journal, 22, 39-65.

Macdonald, A. (2007). Solution-focused therapy: Theory, research & practice. London: Sage Publications.

Metcalf, L. (2011). Marriage and family therapy: A practice-oriented approach. New York: Springer Publish Company.

Monk, G., & Winslade, J. (2000) The use of reflecting teams in counselor education and supervision. Paper presented at annual meeting of the Western Association for counselor education and supervision, Los Gatos, CA.

Munro, L. Knox, M., & Lowe, R. (2008). Exploring the potential of constructionist therapy: Deaf clients, hearing therapists and a reflecting team. Journal of Deaf Studies Deaf Education, 13(3), 307 – 323.

Nelson, M.L., & Neufeldt, S.A. (1998). The pedagogy of counseling: A critical examination. Counselor Education and Supervision, 38, 70- 88.

Norman, H., Hjerth, M. & Pidsley, T. (2005). Solution-focused reflecting teams in action. In M. McKergow & J. Clarke (Eds.), Positive approaches to change: Applications of solutions focus and appreciative enquiry at work (pp. 67–80). Cheltenham, UK: Solutions Books.

Pare, D.A. (1999). Using reflecting teams in clinical training. Canadian Journal of Counseling, 33, 293-306.

Pender, R. L. (2008). Making meaning: A couple's perspective of the reflecting team process (Order No. 1456951). Available from ProQuest Dissertations & Theses Global. (304464133). Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/304464133?accountid=16595

Peterson, D.R. (1995). The reflective educator. American Psychologist, 50, 975-983.

Roberts, T.W., Winek, J., & Mulgrew, J. (1999). A systems/dialectical model of supervision: A symbolic process. Contemporary Family Therapy, 21(3), 291-302.

Selekman, M.D. (2005). Pathways to change: Brief therapy with difficult adolescents. New York: The Guilford Press

Young, J., Perlesz, A., Paterson, R., O’Hanlon, B., Newbold, A., Chaplin, R., & Bridge, S. (1989). The reflecting team process in training. Australia and New Zealand Journal of Family Therapy, 10(2), 69-74.

White, M. (1995). Re-authoring lives: Interviews and essays. Adelaide, South Australia: Dulwich Centre Publications

White, M. (1999). Reflecting-team work as definitional ceremony revisited. Gecko: A Journal of Deconstruction and Narrative Ideas in Therapeutic Practice, 2, 55-82

Winek, J. (2010). Systemic family therapy: From theory to practice. Thousand Oaks: Sage.

Vaz, K.M. (2005). Reflecting team group therapy and its congruence with feminist principles. Women and Therapy, 28(2), 65-75.

___

Turkish Studies (Elektronik)
  • ISSN: 1308-2140
  • Yayın Aralığı: Yılda 6 Sayı
  • Başlangıç: 2006

567.4b274.2b

Sayıdaki Diğer Makaleler

SOSYAL BİLGİLER, FEN BİLİMLERİ VE DİĞER BRANŞ ÖĞRETMENLERİNİN GÖRÜŞLERİ AÇISINDAN ZEKÂ OYUNLARI ÖĞRETİM PROGRAMI

HAYATİ ADALAR, İBRAHİM YÜKSEL

THE INFUSION OF ARGUMENTATION IN CHEMISTRY EDUCATION: THE CASE WITH DAILY LIFE PHENOMENA RELATED TO GASES

AYBÜKE PABUÇCU

ZİHİNSEL ENGELLİ OKULLARINDA BEDEN EĞİTİMİ VE SPOR DERSİ PROGRAMINA YÖNELİK ÖĞRETMEN GÖRÜŞLERİNİN DEĞERLENDİRİLMESİ

YUNUS EMRE KARAKAYA, Emin Tamer YENER, ÇETİN TAN, FATİH MEHMET UĞURLU

OKUL ÖNCESİ ÖĞRETMENLİĞİ BÖLÜMÜ ÖĞRENCİLERİ VE ÖN LİSANS ÇOCUK GELİŞİMİ PROGRAMI ÖĞRENCİLERİNİN FEN ÖĞRETİMİNE YÖNELİK TUTUMLARININ İNCELENMESİ

SERAP AKTEMUR GÜRLER, MUZAFFER ALKAN, NUR AKCANCA, HİCRAN ALKAN

ÖĞRETMEN HESAP VEREBİLİRLİK EĞİLİMİ ÖLÇEĞİNİN TÜRKÇEYE UYARLAMA ÇALIŞMASI

YUSUF CERİT, HATİCE KADIOĞLU ATEŞ, serkan KADIOĞLU

RESEARCH INTO THE VETERAN TEACHERS’ VIEWS OVER THE EFFECTS OF SELF-DIRECTED LEARNING ENVIRONMENT ON STUDENTS’ ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENTS (CROSS-CULTURAL STUDY)

FETHİ KAYALAR

KELOĞLAN MASALLARININ 4. SINIF SOSYAL BİLGİLER PROGRAMINDA YER ALAN DEĞERLER AÇISINDAN ANALİZİ

AYŞEGÜL TURAL, GÜLSÜN ŞAHAN

OKUL ÖNCESİ EĞİTİM KURUMLARININ FİZİKSEL KOŞULLARININ İNCELENMESİ: KIRŞEHİR İLİ ÖRNEĞİ

Ayşegül SELİMHOCAOĞLU

MANEVİ ANLAM İLE MANEVİYAT İLİŞKİSİNİN İNCELENMESİ

RUKİYE ŞAHİN, YUSUF SARIKAYA, MUSTAFA BALOĞLU

ÖĞRENCİLERİN VE ÖĞRETMENLERİN BAKIŞ AÇISIYLA BARIŞ

ÖMÜR GÜRDOĞAN BAYIR, NUR LEMAN BALBAĞ, TUBA ÇENGELCİ KÖSE