ONTOLOJİK ANALİZ YÖNTEMİYLE NECATİ BEY’İN BİR GAZELİNİ ŞERH DENEMESİ

Günümüzde modern yaklaşımlar, dilbilimsel akımlar ve felsefi anlayışlarla şiire yaklaşım yöntemleri, Klasik Türk şiirinde de kullanılmaya yöntemlerinden birisi de Ontolojik Analiz Metodudur. Ontolojik analiz metodunda amaç, metni anlam tabakalarına ayırarak, metni hem iç hem dış yapısını birbirinden bağımsız değerlendirmektir. Ontolojik yöntemle ilgilenenler ele aldıkları konuyu tabakalar şeklinde ele alırlar. Parçadan bütüne giden bu yöntem bir bakıma tümevarım metoduna benzemektedir. Her tabaka kendi içerisinde ve diğer tabakalara kattığı değerle nitelendirilir Bu yazıda on beşinci yüzyıl Divân şairlerinden Necâtî Bey'in "senin" redifli gazeli ontolojik analiz yöntemi ile incelenmeye çalışılmıştır. Necâtî'nin şiirini incelerken öncelikle şiiri oluşturan en küçük parçayı yani beyitleri kendi aralarında yapısal yönden incelenmiştir. Daha sonra da ses, anlam, karakter ve kader tabakalarını belirlenmiştir. Bu aşamadan sonra da şiirin iç ve dış yapısını da göz önünde bulundurarak bir bütün olarak değerlendirmesi yapılmıştır. Şüphesiz ki ontolojik analiz yöntemi bir şiiri incelemede teknik olarak tek başına yetersiz kalacaktır. Fakat bu yöntemin yine de birçok beyti açıklamada ufkumuzu genişleteceği ve bize farklı bakış açısı kazandıracağı kanaatindeyiz. Şiirde uygulamaya çalıştığımız yöntemin, konuyla ilgilenen araştırmacılar için yeni arayışlara ufuk açmasını ümit ediyoruz.

ANALYSIS OF NECATI BEY’S GHAZEL WITH ONTOLOGICAL ANALYSIS METHOD

Nowadays, the tecniques of approaches to the poetry with modern approaches, linguistic movements and philosophical insight also began to be used in Classical Turkish poetry. One of the methods of the new approaches to our classical literature is Ontological Analysis Method. The objective in Ontological Analysis Method is to divide the text into layers of meaning and evaluate both internal structure and external structure of the text individually. The ones who are interested in Ontological Analysis Method deal with their topics in layers. This method which goes from the part to the whole has resemblance to inductive method in a way. Each layer is described with its own and according to the values that it adds to the other layers. In this study, it is tried to be analysed “Senin”, ghazel of NecatiBey, who is one of Ottoman poets in the fifteenth century, and ghazel with a repeated voice after the rhyme according to Ontological Analysis Method. While analysing Necati’s poems, firstly the couplets as the smallest parts which form the poem constructively between each other are analysed, and then its semantic, object, character, and destiny layers are determined. After this stage, it is evaluated as a whole by taking into consideration the poem’s internal and external structures. No doubt Ontological Analysis Method will be inadequate on its own to analyse a poem technically. However, we think that this method will broaden our horizon and we will have different outlooks. We hope that the method which we try to apply will open up new horizons for the researchers who are interested in this subject. method which goes from the part to the whole has similarity with inductive method in one sense. Each layer is defined within its own and according to the values that it adds to the other layers. These layers are semantic layer, object layer, character layer and fate layer. Semantic layer analyzes the interests and associations between words, and literary techniques. The object layer is the layer in which the ghazel is explained through its association with main words forming the depth of the meaning. In character layer, psychological situation of the object, the mood that the object has at that moment are showed. The last layer consists of the evaluation of the object in the ghazel or general features of the situation. We not only assume that Ontological Analysis Method remains insufficient in analyzing a poem, but also think that it will broaden our horizon in explaining many couplets and gain different viewpoints to us. In this study, we tried to analyze “Senin”, ghazel of Necati Bey, who is one of Ottoman poets in the fifteenth century, an ghazel with repeated voice according to Ontological Analysis Method. In this study in which we are analyzing Necati Bey’s poem, we firstly analyzed the couplets as the smallest parts that construct the poem structurally between each other and then determined its semantic layer, its object layer, its character layer and its destiny layer. After this stage, we evaluated the poem as a whole by taking internal structure and external structure of the poem into consideration. Using such modern methods as well as classical gloss method will make contribution to understand and comment Turkish literature in general, and Turkish Divan poetry in special. While we are analyzing Divan literature, it is possible to make use of Ontological Analysis Method significantly. It is possible to practise this method over both every couplet of ghazel one by one and in dealing with the ghazel as a whole. However, it is mostly difficult to practise a modern method over the whole ghazel as it is understood by means of ghazel gloss on which we are studying in this study. This indicates that it is not possible to expound one divan from beginning to the end through the same method. If the couplets that are the ones consisting of all the layers and categories that form the essentials of this method by depending on internal structure and external structure are chosen in poetry analysis, it will bring important gains in practising this method. Consequently, it is impossible to analyze all the poems in the Divan literature or all the couplets of one ghazel with the same method. Preferring traditional and modern gloss techniques in accordance with the style and the content of the ghazel or the couplet that will be analyzed will make a big contribution to us in order to make the poem clearer

Kaynakça

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Kaynak Göster