Öz In this study, the activity of paraoxonase 1 PON1 in various cattle races in different age groups was investigated. PON1 is capable of hydrolyzing organophosphate agents of pesticides that are amongst the most significant stress sources for farm animals. PON1 can also hydrolyse nerve gases and can protect the organism against lipid peroxide formations that occur as a result of oxidation of LDL. The cattle races in the study were separated into 3different age groups of young 0 to6 months , middle-age 6 months to 4 years and old 4 years of age and above , and 5 mL of blood sample was collected from each animal to analyse and determine their PON1 activities. The statistical analyses were then performed. Based on the knowledge that the animals with high PON1 enzyme activity would have higher adaptation capabilities for regions that are being sprayed with pesticides compared to animals with low PON1 enzyme activity, the possibility of using PON1 activity tests as a potential precharacterization study for marker assisted selection MAS was investigated. The results have revealed that PON1 enzyme activity could be used as a biomarker for determination of pesticide resistance.
1. Akçapınar H, Özbeyaz C. Hayvan Yetiştiriciliği Temel Bilgileri. Ankara, Turkey: Nadir Kitap; 1999 (in Turkish).
2. Aksoy AR. Hayvan Islahı Ders Notları. Kars, Turkey: Kafkas Üniversitesi Veteriner Fakültesi; 2003 (in Turkish).
3. Montaldo HH, Meza-Herrera CA. Use of molecular markers and major genes in the genetic improvement of livestock Electron. Journal of Biotechnology 1998; 1: 83-89.
4. Lara M, Gama L, Bufarah G, Sereno J, Celegato E et al. Genetic polymorphisms at the k-casein in the pantaneiro cattle. Archivos de Zootecnia 2002; 51: 99-105.
5. Bal SH, Budak F. Genomik proteomik kavramlarına genel bakış ve uygulama alanları. Uludağ Üniversitesi Tıp Fakültesi Dergisi 2013; 39: 65-69 (in Turkish with an abstract in English).
6. Tiryaki O, Temur C. The fate of pesticide in the environment. Journal of Biological and Enviromental Sciences 2010; 4: 29- 38.
7. Tarakçı Ü, Türel İ. Halk sağlığı amaçlı kullanılan pestisitlerin (Biyosidal) güvenilirlik standartlarının karşılaştırılması. YYU Veteriner Fakültesi Dergisi 2009; 20: 11-18 (in Turkish with an abstract in English)
8. Nougadere A, Merlo M, Heraud F, Rety J, Truchot E et al. How dietary risk assessment can guide risk management and food monitoring programmes: The approach and results of the French Observatory on Pesticide Residues (ANSES/ORP). Food Control 2014; 41: 32-48.
9. Costa L, Li W, Richter R, Shih D, Lusis A et al. The role of paraoxonase (PON1) in the detoxication of organophosphates and its human polmorphisms. Chemico Biological Interactions 1999; 429: 119-120.
10. Graham A, Hassall DG, Rafique S, Owen JS. Evidence for a paraoxonase-independent inhibition of low density lipoprotein oxidation by high-density lipoprotein. Atherosclerosis 1997; 135: 193-204.
11. Aviram M, Hardak E, Vaya J, Mahmood S. Human serum paraoxonase (PON1) Q and R electively decrease lipid peroxides in human coronary and carotid lesions. Circulation 1999; 101: 2510-17.
12. Antonic-Svetina M, Turk R, Svetina A, Geres D, Rekic B et al. Lipid statusparaoxonase-1 activity and metabolic parametres in serum of heifers and lactatinh cows related to oxidative stress. Research in Veterinary Science 2011; 90: 298-300.
13. Giordino A, Veronesi M, Rossi G, Pezzia F, Probo M et al. Serum paraoxonase-1 activity in neonatal calves: Age related variations and comparison between healthy and sick animals. Veterinary Journal 2013; 197: 499-501.
14. Erzengin M, Demir D, Arslan M, Sinan S. Purification and characterization of paraoxonase 1 (PON1) from Swiss Black Holstein and Montofon bovines. Applied Biochemistry Biotechnology 2014; 173: 1597-1660.
15. Richter R, Clement E. Determination of paraoxonase (PON1) status requires more than genotyping. Pharmacogenetics 1999; 9: 745-53.
16. Richter RJ, Jampsa RL, Jarvik GP, Costa LG, Furlong CE. Determination of paraoxonase 1 status and genotypes at specific polymorphic sites. Current Protocols in Toxicology 2004. doi: 10.1002/0471140856.tx0412s19
17. Eckerson HW, Romson J, Wyte C, La Du B. The human serum paraoxonase polymorphism: identification of phenotypes by their response to salts. American Journal of Human Genetics 1983; 35(2): 214-227.
18. Davies HG, Richter RJ, Keifer M, Broomfield CA, Sowalla J et al. The effect of the human serum paraxonase polmorphism is reversed with diazoxon soman and sarin. Nature Genetics 1996; 14: 334-336.
19. Costa L, Cole T, Vitalone A, Furlong C. Measurement of paraoxonase (PON1) status as a potential biomarker of susceptibility to organophosphate toxicity. Clinica Chimica Acta 2005; 352: 37-47.
20. Hillel J, Dunninton E, Siegel P. DNA markers in poultry breeding and genetic analyses. Poultry Science 1992; 4: 169- 186.
21. Nicholas F. Introduction to Veterinary Genetics. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press; 1996.
22. Kulka M, Beltowski J, Klucinski W, Orlowska M, Kolodziejska J et al. Serum paraoxonase-1 activity of dairy Holstein-Fresian cows in different lactation stages–preliminary study. Polish Journal of Veterinary Sciences 2014; 17: 143-147.
23. Kulka M, Kolodziejska-Lesisz J, Klucinski W. Serum paraoxonase (PON1) activity and lipid metabolism parametres changes in different production cycle periods of holsteinfriesion an Polish red and Norwegian breeds. Polish Journal of Veterinary Sciences 2016; 19: 165-73.
24. Turk R, Juretic D, Geres D, Svetina A, Turk N et al. Influence of oxidative stress and metabolic adaptation on PON1 activity and MDA level in transition dairy cows. Animal Reproduction Science 2008; 108(1-2): 98-106.
25. Dileep K, Syed İR. Age-dependent paraoxonase 1 (PON1) activity and LDL oxidation in Wistar rats during their entire lifespan. Scientific World Journal 2014; 1-6.
26. Taha N, El-Noeman S, Korshom M, Mandour A, El-Feky M. (2010) Serum glutathione peroxidase and paraoxonase-1 enzyme activities in camel (Camelus dromedarius): effect of age and sex differences. Journal of Camel Practice and Research 2010; 17: 1-8.
27. Wan-Fen L, Lucio G, Clement E. Serum paraoxonase status: a major factor in determining resistance to organophosphates. Journal of Toxicology Environmental Health 1993; 40: 337- 346.
28. Stoltz DA, Ozer EA, Taft PJ, Barry M, Liu L et al. Drosophila are protected from Pseudomonas aeruginosa lethality by transgenic expression of paraoxonase-1. Journal of Clinical Investigation 2008; 118: 3123-3131