PEDIATRIC DENTISTRY AND DENTAL ANXIETY

PEDIATRIC DENTISTRY AND DENTAL ANXIETY

ÖZET Anksiyete, bilinmeyen bir tehlikeye karşı bilinçaltında oluşan yoğun bir huzursuzluk ve endişe halidir. Anksiyete yaşayan kişi her an kötü bir şey olacakmış ve kendisine zarar gelecekmiş hissine kapılmakta ve nedensiz bir korku yaşamaktadır. Oluşumu çocukluk dönemine kadar uzanmakta ve yetişkinlik döneminde de devam edebilmektedir. Dental anksiyete ise nedeni olmayan ve hastanın her türlü dental işleme karşı duyduğu yoğun endişe olarak tanımlanmaktadır. Diş hekimlerine ve diş tedavilerine karşı oluşan dental anksiyete, dental tedaviyi etkileyen problemlerin başında gelmektedir. Anksiyete seviyesi yüksek olan ve kontrol edilemeyen çocuklarda, ağız-diş sağlığı problemlerinde artış görülmektedir. Bu artışın önlenmesinde dental anksiyete oluşturan nedenlerin belirlenmesi gerekmektedir. Dental anksiyete, bireysel veya çevresel nedenlerle ortaya çıkabilir. Bireysel nedenlere bağlı olmasında çocuğun kendi psikoloji etkenken, çevresel kökenli dental kaygıda geçirilmiş kötü dental işlem veya edinilmiş tecrübeler önemli rol oynamaktadır. Ailenin diş tedavisine olumsuz yaklaşımı, evde tedaviye hazırlık süreci, sosyoekonomik düzeyin düşük olması, çocuğun yaşı ve çocuğun arkadaşlarının dental hikayeleri en önemli etkenlerdir. Çocuklarda dental anksiyetenin belirlenmesinde kullanılan yöntemler, psikometrik, fizyolojik, projektif testler ve davranışların puanlandırılmasıdır. Bu yöntemlerin belirlenmesinde çocuğun yaşı ve gelişim düzeyi gibi durumlara göre seçilmektedir. Çocuklarda dental tedavinin başarıya ulaşmasında, çocuğun dental kaygı düzeyinin belirlenmesi uygun davranış yönlendirme tekniğinin uygulanmasına konusunda önemlidir. ABSTRACT: Anxiety is a state of intense restlessness and anxiety that occurs subconsciously against an unknown danger. The person who experiences anxiety will have something bad at any time and they will feel hurt and experience fear without reason.Its formation dates back to childhood and can continue in adulthood. Dental anxiety, on the other hand, is defined as the intense concern of the patient for all kinds of dental procedures.Dental anxiety against dentists and dental treatments is one of the problems affecting dental treatment. Children with high anxiety levels and uncontrollable increase in oral-dental health problems.In preventing this increase, the reasons causing dental anxiety should be determined.Dental anxiety can occur for individual or environmental reasons. While the child's own psychology is influenced by individual reasons, poor dental procedures in the dental of environmental origin or the experiences gained play an important role.The most important factors are the negative approach of the family to dental treatment, the preparation process for home treatment, low socioeconomic level, the child's age and the dental stories of the child's friends.The methods used in determining dental anxiety in children are psychometric, physiological, projective tests and scoring behaviors.In determining these methods, it is selected according to the child's age and level of development.In the success of dental treatment in children, determining the level of dental anxiety of the child is important in the application of appropriate behavior guidance technique.

___

  • 1.Klingberg G, Broberg AG. Dental fear/anxiety and dental behaviour management problems in children and adolescents: a review of prevalence and concomitant psychological factors. Int J Paediatr Dent. 2007, 17 (6): 391-406.
  • 2. Şener Y, Özer H. Diş hekimi korkusu nedenleri. Turkiye Klinikleri Journal of Pediatric Dentistry-Special Topics. 2018, 4 (2): 110-4.
  • 3. Chadwick BL, Hosey MT. Child taming: how to manage children in dental practice,1st ed.London, Quintessence Pub Co, 2003: 37-46.
  • 4. Klingberg G, Dahllöf G, Erlandsson AL, Grindefjord M, Hallström- Stalin U, Koch G, et al. A survey of specialist paediatric dental services in Sweden: results from 2003, and trends since 1983. Int J Paediatr Dent. 2006, 16 (2): 89-94.
  • 5. Oba AA, Dülgergil ÇT, Sönmez IŞ. Prevalence of dental anxiety in 7-to 11-year-old children and its relationship to dental caries. Med Princ Pract. 2009, 18 (6): 453-7.
  • 6. Doğan MC, Seydaoglu G, Uguz S, Inanc BY. The effect of age, gender and socio- economic factors on perceived dental anxiety determined by a modified scale in children. Oral health & preventive dentistry. 2006, 4 (4): 235-41.
  • 7. Bayrak Ş, Şen E, Eğilmez T, Tüloğlu N. Ebeveyn dental kaygısı ve sosyodemografik faktörlerin çocukların dental kaygısı üzerine etkileri. Atatürk Üniversitesi Diş Hekimliği Fakültesi Dergisi. 2010, 2010 (3): 181-8.8
  • 8. Carrillo-Diaz M, Crego A, Armfield JM, Romero- Maroto M. Treatment experience, frequency of dental visits, and children’s dental fear: a cognitive approach. Eur J Oral Sci. 2012, 120 (1): 75-81.
  • 9. Carrillo-Diaz M, Crego A, Armfield JM, Romero- Maroto M. Treatment experience, frequency of dental visits, and children’s dental fear: a cognitive approach. Eur J Oral Sci. 2012, 120 (1): 75-81.
  • 10. Lee CY, Chang YY, Huang ST. Prevalence of dental anxiety among 5-to 8-year-old Taiwanese children. J Public Health Dent. 2007, 67 (1): 36-41.
  • 11. Wogelius P, Poulsen S, Toft Sørensen H. Prevalence of dental anxiety and behavior management problems among six to eight years old Danish children. Acta Odontol Scand. 2003, 61 (3): 178-83.
  • 12. King TL, McCool WF. The definition and assessment of pain. J Midwifery Womens Health. 2004, 49 (6): 471-2.
  • 13. Baier K, Milgrom P, Russell S, Mancl L, Yoshida T. Children's fear and behavior in private pediatric dentistry practices. Pediatr Dent. 2004, 26 (4): 316-21.
  • 14. Kakkar M, Wahi A, Thakkar R, Vohra I, Shukla AK. Prevalence of dental anxiety in 10-14 years old children and its implications. J Dent Anesth Pain Med. 2016, 16 (3): 199-202 .
  • 15. Peretz B, Efrat J. Dental anxiety among young adolescent patients in Israel. Int J Paediatr Dent.2000, 10 (2): 126-32.
  • 16. Carrillo-Diaz M, Crego A, Armfield JM, Romero-Maroto M. Assessing the relative efficacy of cognitive and non-cognitive factors as predictors of dental anxiety. Eur J Oral Sci. 2012, 120 (1): 82-8.
  • 17. Rajwar AS, Goswami M. Prevalence of dental fear and its causes using three measurement scales among children in New Delhi. J Indian Soc Pedod Prev Dent. 2017, 35 (2): 128.
  • 18. Klingberg G, Broberg A. Temperament and child dental fear. Pediatr Dent. 1998, 20: 237-43.
  • 19. Koch G, Poulsen S, Espelid I, Haubek D. Pediatric dentistry: a clinical approach,1st ed.Copenhagen, John Wiley & Sons; 2017: 87-93.
  • 20. Reddy RS, Kotha R, Pavani K, Subbarayudu G, Rajesh N, Sruthi R. Dental anxiety – neglect of dental care. International Journal of Health. 2015, 3 (1): 3-20. 21. Javadekar A. Child Management in Clinical Dentistry. 1st ed. India, Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers,2010: 20.
  • 22. Folayan M, Idehen E, Ufomata D. The effect of sociodemographic factors on dental anxiety in children seen in a suburban Nigerian hospital. Int J Paediatr Dent. 2003, 13 (1): 20-6.
  • 23. Freeman R. Dental anxiety: a multifactorial aetiology. Br Dent J. 1985, 159 (12): 406.
  • 24. Vassend O. Anxiety, pain and discomfort associated with dental treatment. Behav Res Ther. 1993, 31 (7): 659-66.
  • 25. Thomson WM, Locker D, Poulton R. Incidence of dental anxiety in young adults in relation to dental treatment experience. Community Dent Oral Epidemiol. 2000, 28 (4): 289-94.
  • 26. Nicolas E, Bessadet M, Collado V, Carrasco P, Rogerleroi V, Hennequin M. Factors affecting dental fear in French children aged 5–12 years. Int J Paediatr Dent. 2010, 20 (5): 366-73.
  • 27. De Jongh A, Aartman I, Brand N. Trauma- related phenomena in anxious dental patients. Community Dent Oral Epidemiol. 2003, 31 (1): 52-8.
  • 28. Mistry D, Tahmassebi J. Children’s and parents’ attitudes towards dentists’ attire. Eur Arch Paediatr Dent.2009, 10 (4): 23740.
  • 29. Keenum AJ, Wallace LS, Stevens A. Patients' attitudes regarding physical characteristics of family practice physicians. Southern medical journal. 2003, 96 (12): 1190-4.
  • 30. Wong M, Lytle WR. A comparison of anxiety levels associated with root canal therapy and oral surgery treatment. J Endod. 1991, 17 (9): 461-5.
  • 31. Peretz B, Mann J. Dental anxiety among Israeli dental students: a 4- year longitudinal study. Eur J Dent Educ. 2000, 4 (3): 133-7. 32. Settineri S, Tatì F, Fanara G. Gender differences in dental anxiety: is the chair position important. J Contemp Dent Pract. 2005, 6 (1): 115-22.
  • 33. Townend E, Dimigen G, Fung D. A clinical study of child dental anxiety. Behav Res Ther. 2000, 38 (1): 31-46.
  • 34. Hägglin C, Hakeberg M, Ahlqwist M, Sullivan M, Berggren U. Factors associated with dental anxiety and attendance in middle‐ aged and elderly women. Community Dent Oral Epidemiol. 2000, 28 (6): 451-60.
  • 35. Schuller AA, Willumsen T, Holst D. Are there differences in oral health and oral health behavior between individuals with high and low dental fear? Community Dent Oral Epidemiol. 2003, 31 (2): 116-21.
  • 36. Wisløff T, Vassend O, Asmyhr O. Dental anxiety, utilisation of dental services, and DMFS status in Norwegian military recruits. Community Dental Health. 1995, 12 (2): 100-3.
  • 37. Carrillo- Diaz M, Crego A, Romero- Maroto M. The influence of gender on the relationship between dental anxiety and oral health- related emotional well- being. Int J Paediatr Dent .2013, 23 (3): 180-7.
  • 38. Frankl S. Should the parent remain with the child in the dental operatory? J Dent Child. 1962, 29: 150-63.
  • 39. Kain ZN, Mayes LC, Cicchetti DV, Bagnall AL, Finley JD, Hofstadter MB. The Yale Preoperative Anxiety Scale: how does it compare with a" gold standard"? Anesthesia & Analgesia. 1997, 85 (4): 783-8.
  • 40. Aartman IH, Hoogstraten J, Schuurs AH. Self-report measurements of dental anxiety and fear in children: a critical assessment. ASDC J Dent Child. 1998, 65 (4): 252-8, 29-30.
  • 41. Eichenbaum I, Dunn N. Projective drawings by children under repeated dental stress. ASDC J Dent Child. 1971, 38 (3): 16473. 42. Venham L, Bengston D, Cipes M. Children's response to sequential dental visits. J Dent Res. 1977, 56 (5): 454-9.
  • 43. Venham L. The effect of mother's presence of child's response to dental treatment. ASDC J Dent Child.1979, 46 (3): 219.
  • 44. Campbell C. Dental Fear and Anxiety in Pediatric Patients. 1st ed. UK, Springer Int Pub, 2017:35.
  • 45. Chapman H, Kirby-Turner N. Visual/verbal analogue scales: examples of brief assessment methods to aid management of child and adult patients in clinical practice. Br Dent J. 2002, 193 (8): 447.
  • 46. Jimeno FG, Bielsa SY, Fernández CC, Rodríguez AL, Bellido MM. Objective and subjective measures for assessing anxiety in paediatric dental patients. Eur J Paediatr Dent. 2011, 12 (4): 239-44.
  • 47. Dentistry AAPD. Clinical Affairs Committee Behavior Management Subcomittee American Academy of Pediatric Dentistry Council on Clinical Affairs, Committee on Behavior Guidance: Guideline on behavior guidance for the pediatric dental patient. Pediatr Dent. 2006, 27: 92-100