Petrography and geochemistry of the Kamlial Formation, southwestern Kohat plateau, Pakistan: implications for paleoclimate of the Western Himalayas

The Middle to Late Miocene Kamlial Formation that largely consists of sandstone and interbedded clay/mudstone sequences is exposed in the southwestern part of the Kohat plateau, which constitutes the westernmost extension of the Himalayan Foreland Basin. Whereas the sandstone is gray to brownish gray, fine- to medium-grained, and mostly thick-bedded, the interbedded clay/mudstone sequence is brownish gray to maroon red and occurs as continuous beds as well as lenses. Some mudstone/clay beds are bioturbated and seem to be pedogenic surfaces. Results of geochemical investigation of fresh (unaltered) representative sandstone and mudstone samples from three different sections of the formation in the southwestern Kohat plateau are presented and discussed. The average chemical index of alteration (CIA) values of both the sandstone (70-86) and mudstone (71-85) suggest moderate to slightly intense weathering in the source area. However, the high CIA values may also be due to the presence of abundant sedimentary rock fragments, which occur in the studied sandstone, rather than a result of severe weathering. Furthermore, the possibility of intensive chemical weathering in the Himalayas orogenic belt is highly unlikely, as it requires tectonic quiescence for a long period, higher temperature, and humidity. Accordingly, the range of the index of chemical variability values (0.6-2.1) of mudstone and low contents of Rb and Cs in both the mudstone and sandstone indicate somewhat moderate weathering. Furthermore, the Th/U and Rb/Sr ratios of the Kamlial Formation are lower than the corresponding average values for the upper continental crust and post-Archean average Australian shale, which shows that these sediments are first-cycled in origin. However, the Zr/Sc ratio indicates minor contributions from recycled sedimentary sources. The values of authigenic U and the U/Th, V/Cr, Cu/Zn, and Ni/Co ratios all suggest that the Kamlial sediments were deposited under oxidizing conditions.

Petrography and geochemistry of the Kamlial Formation, southwestern Kohat plateau, Pakistan: implications for paleoclimate of the Western Himalayas

The Middle to Late Miocene Kamlial Formation that largely consists of sandstone and interbedded clay/mudstone sequences is exposed in the southwestern part of the Kohat plateau, which constitutes the westernmost extension of the Himalayan Foreland Basin. Whereas the sandstone is gray to brownish gray, fine- to medium-grained, and mostly thick-bedded, the interbedded clay/mudstone sequence is brownish gray to maroon red and occurs as continuous beds as well as lenses. Some mudstone/clay beds are bioturbated and seem to be pedogenic surfaces. Results of geochemical investigation of fresh (unaltered) representative sandstone and mudstone samples from three different sections of the formation in the southwestern Kohat plateau are presented and discussed. The average chemical index of alteration (CIA) values of both the sandstone (70-86) and mudstone (71-85) suggest moderate to slightly intense weathering in the source area. However, the high CIA values may also be due to the presence of abundant sedimentary rock fragments, which occur in the studied sandstone, rather than a result of severe weathering. Furthermore, the possibility of intensive chemical weathering in the Himalayas orogenic belt is highly unlikely, as it requires tectonic quiescence for a long period, higher temperature, and humidity. Accordingly, the range of the index of chemical variability values (0.6-2.1) of mudstone and low contents of Rb and Cs in both the mudstone and sandstone indicate somewhat moderate weathering. Furthermore, the Th/U and Rb/Sr ratios of the Kamlial Formation are lower than the corresponding average values for the upper continental crust and post-Archean average Australian shale, which shows that these sediments are first-cycled in origin. However, the Zr/Sc ratio indicates minor contributions from recycled sedimentary sources. The values of authigenic U and the U/Th, V/Cr, Cu/Zn, and Ni/Co ratios all suggest that the Kamlial sediments were deposited under oxidizing conditions.

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Kaynak Göster

Bibtex @araştırma makalesi { tbtkearth143929, journal = {Turkish Journal of Earth Sciences}, issn = {1300-0985}, eissn = {1303-619X}, address = {}, publisher = {TÜBİTAK}, year = {2015}, volume = {24}, pages = {276 - 288}, doi = {10.3906/yer-1410-21}, title = {Petrography and geochemistry of the Kamlial Formation, southwestern Kohat plateau, Pakistan: implications for paleoclimate of the Western Himalayas}, key = {cite}, author = {Ullah, Kafayat and Arıf, Mohammad and Shah, Muhammad Tahır} }
APA Ullah, K , Ullah, K , Arıf, M , Arıf, M , Shah, M , Shah, M . (2015). Petrography and geochemistry of the Kamlial Formation, southwestern Kohat plateau, Pakistan: implications for paleoclimate of the Western Himalayas . Turkish Journal of Earth Sciences , 24 (3) , 276-288 . DOI: 10.3906/yer-1410-21
MLA Ullah, K , Ullah, K , Arıf, M , Arıf, M , Shah, M , Shah, M . "Petrography and geochemistry of the Kamlial Formation, southwestern Kohat plateau, Pakistan: implications for paleoclimate of the Western Himalayas" . Turkish Journal of Earth Sciences 24 (2015 ): 276-288 <https://dergipark.org.tr/tr/pub/tbtkearth/issue/12044/143929>
Chicago Ullah, K , Ullah, K , Arıf, M , Arıf, M , Shah, M , Shah, M . "Petrography and geochemistry of the Kamlial Formation, southwestern Kohat plateau, Pakistan: implications for paleoclimate of the Western Himalayas". Turkish Journal of Earth Sciences 24 (2015 ): 276-288
RIS TY - JOUR T1 - Petrography and geochemistry of the Kamlial Formation, southwestern Kohat plateau, Pakistan: implications for paleoclimate of the Western Himalayas AU - Kafayat Ullah , Kafayat Ullah , Mohammad Arıf , Mohammad Arıf , Muhammad Tahir Shah , Muhammad Tahır Shah Y1 - 2015 PY - 2015 N1 - doi: 10.3906/yer-1410-21 DO - 10.3906/yer-1410-21 T2 - Turkish Journal of Earth Sciences JF - Journal JO - JOR SP - 276 EP - 288 VL - 24 IS - 3 SN - 1300-0985-1303-619X M3 - doi: 10.3906/yer-1410-21 UR - https://doi.org/10.3906/yer-1410-21 Y2 - 2021 ER -
EndNote %0 Turkish Journal of Earth Sciences Petrography and geochemistry of the Kamlial Formation, southwestern Kohat plateau, Pakistan: implications for paleoclimate of the Western Himalayas %A Kafayat Ullah , Kafayat Ullah , Mohammad Arıf , Mohammad Arıf , Muhammad Tahir Shah , Muhammad Tahır Shah %T Petrography and geochemistry of the Kamlial Formation, southwestern Kohat plateau, Pakistan: implications for paleoclimate of the Western Himalayas %D 2015 %J Turkish Journal of Earth Sciences %P 1300-0985-1303-619X %V 24 %N 3 %R doi: 10.3906/yer-1410-21 %U 10.3906/yer-1410-21
ISNAD Ullah, Kafayat , Ullah, Kafayat , Arıf, Mohammad , Arıf, Mohammad , Shah, Muhammad Tahir , Shah, Muhammad Tahır . "Petrography and geochemistry of the Kamlial Formation, southwestern Kohat plateau, Pakistan: implications for paleoclimate of the Western Himalayas". Turkish Journal of Earth Sciences 24 / 3 (Ağustos 2015): 276-288 . https://doi.org/10.3906/yer-1410-21
AMA Ullah K , Ullah K , Arıf M , Arıf M , Shah M , Shah M . Petrography and geochemistry of the Kamlial Formation, southwestern Kohat plateau, Pakistan: implications for paleoclimate of the Western Himalayas. Turkish Journal of Earth Sciences. 2015; 24(3): 276-288.
Vancouver Ullah K , Ullah K , Arıf M , Arıf M , Shah M , Shah M . Petrography and geochemistry of the Kamlial Formation, southwestern Kohat plateau, Pakistan: implications for paleoclimate of the Western Himalayas. Turkish Journal of Earth Sciences. 2015; 24(3): 276-288.
IEEE K. Ullah , K. Ullah , M. Arıf , M. Arıf , M. Shah ve M. Shah , "Petrography and geochemistry of the Kamlial Formation, southwestern Kohat plateau, Pakistan: implications for paleoclimate of the Western Himalayas", Turkish Journal of Earth Sciences, c. 24, sayı. 3, ss. 276-288, Ağu. 2015, doi:10.3906/yer-1410-21