Annelerin Çocuklarıyla Geçmiş Hakkındaki Konuşmalarının Anne Eğitim Düzeyiyle İlişkisi

Bu çalışma, annelerin çocuklarıyla geçmişteki olaylar hakkında konuşma davranışlarıyla anne eğitim düzeyinin ilişkisini araştırmaktadır. ABD’de yapılan araştırmalar, annelerin çocuklarıyla anıları hakkında konuşurken kullandığı, ayrıntıcı (elaborative) ve tekrarcı (repetitive) olmak üzere iki ayrı konuşma biçimi belirlemiş, fakat bu stillerin annelerin eğitim düzeyleriyle ilişkisini incelememiştir. 11 yüksek ve 11 düşük eğitim düzeyli annenin, çocuklarına geçmiş olayları hatırlatmaya çalışırken geçen konuşmaları teybe kaydedilmiştir. Annelerin çocuklarına yönelik sözceleri (utterance), biçim, içerik ve çocuktan gelen yanıtla ilişkili olarak kodlanmıştır. Bulgularda, her iki gruptaki anneler de aynı sayıda olaydan bahsederken, yüksek eğitimli annelerin olay başına daha fazla sayıda sözce oluşturduğu görülmüştür. Ayrıca eğitim düzeyi yüksek annelerin, eğitim düzeyi düşük annelerle karşılaştırılınca, daha fazla ayrıntıcı ve daha az tekrarcı bir konuşma stili kullanma eğilimi gösterdikleri bulunmuştur. Bu farkın en önemli kaynağı, kullanılan farklı soru oranları ve biçimleri değil, yüksek eğitimli anneler tarafından daha sıklıkla kullanılan olayların detaylarını betimleyen bildirim cümleleridir. Bulunan farklılıkların nedenleri olarak, annelerin eğitimlerinin uzunluğuyla ilişkili olarak geliştirdikleri "okul söylemiyle" tanışıklıkları ve bunun sonucunda edindikleri ayrıntıcı anlatı ve iletişim becerileri düşünülebilinir.

Effect of Maternal Education on Turkish Mother' Styles of Reminiscing With Their Children

This study investigates the relationship of maternal education to the style of mother-child conversations about past events. Previous research conducted in the US has identified two distinct styles of communication that mothers use to elicit talk about past events from their children (i.e., elaborative style and repetitive style), but the relationship of these patterns of talk to mothers’ education level has not been investigated. In this study, we recorded 22 mother-child pairs. Of these, half included mothers of high educational background, and the other half had mothers of low educational background. Mothers’ child-directed utterances were coded in terms of their forms, contents, and relationships to the child’s responses. Results show that high-education mothers addressed more utterances per event to their children than low-education mothers. Also, child-directed speech of high-education mothers tended to be more elaborative and less repetitive than the speech of low-education mothers. One major contributor to this overall difference was that high-education mothers offered more elaborative statements than low-education mothers. The proportions of questioning behavior, on the other hand, were the same across the two groups of mothers. The pattern of differences found in the study could be explained by the longer exposure of high-education mothers to "classroom discourse" in addition to the potential facilitative effects of schooling on their communicative and narrative skills.

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