Sağlık Kurumlarında Algılanan Hekim Nezaketsizliğinin, Algılanan Adalet ve Hizmetten Kaçınmaya Etkisi: Kırıkkale’de Bir Araştırma

İşyerinde çalışan nezaketsizliği ile yaygın olarak karşılaşılmaktadır. Saygı kurallarına aykırı davranışları ifade eden nezaketsizliğin, yönetim biliminde çalışanlara etkileriyle ilgili çok sayıda araştırma olmasına karşın, tüketicilere etkileri görece az ilgi çekmiştir. Bu araştırmanın amacı, hekimle ilgili algılanan kabalığının, hastaların adalet algısına ve sağlık hizmetlerini almaktan kaçınmasına etkilerini belirlemektir. Araştırmada, nezaketsizlikle ilgili literatür incelemesinin ardından, Kırıkkale ilinde kolayda örnekleme yöntemiyle 410 kişiden toplanan verilerin analizine yer verilmiştir. Toplanan verilerin analizi neticesinde algılanan nezaketsizliğin, hastaların adalet algısını olumsuz etkilediği ve sağlık hizmetleri almaktan kaçınmayı artırdığı tespit edilmiştir. Dolayısıyla hekim kabalığının sağlık sektöründe ve toplumsal düzeyde önemli bir sorun olabileceği anlaşılmaktadır. Son olarak sağlık kuruluşlarına ve araştırmacılara öneriler geliştirilmiştir.

Research on the Effect of Perceived Physician Incivility on Justice Perception and Service Avoidance of Patients in Health Care Institutions

Employee incivility is commonly encountered in the workplace. Although there are lots of studies on the effects of incivility on employees in management science, the effects on the consumers have received little attention. The goal of this study is to determine the effects of perceived incivility on doctors on justice perception and avoidance from the health services of patients. In the research, after analyzing the literature on incivility, the analysis of the data collected from 410 people in Kırıkkale province by convenience sampling method was included. As a result of the analysis of the collected data, it was determined that the perceived incivility adversely affects the justice perception of the patients and increasing the avoidance of receiving health services. Hence, it can be understood that doctor incivility can be an important problem in the health sector and social level. Finally, recommendations have been developed for health institutions and researchers.

___

Albar, B. Ö., & Ofluoğlu, G. (2017). Çalışma hayatında mobbing ve tükenmişlik ilişkisi. Hak İş Uluslararası Emek ve Toplum Dergisi, 6(16), 538-550.

Alola, U., Violet, O, Olugbade, A., & Avcı, T. (2019). Customer incivility and employees outcomes in the hotel: Testing the mediating role of emotional exhaustion. Tourism Management Perspectives, 29, 9-17.

Andersson, L. M., & Pearson, C. M. (1999). Tit for tat? The spiraling effect of incivility in theworkplace. Academy of Management Review, 24, 452-471.

Bacile, T., Wolter, J. S., Allen, A.M. & Xu, P. (2018). The effects of online incivility and consumer-to-consumer interactional justice on complainants, observers, and service providers during social media service recovery. Journal of Interactive Marketing, 44, 60-81.

Bavik, A., & Bavik, Y. L. (2015). Effect of employee incivility on customer retaliation through psychological contract breach: The moderating role of moral identity. International journal of hospitality management, 50, 66-76

Beattie, L., & Griffin, B. (2014). Day-level fluctuations in stress and engagement in response to workplace incivility: A diary study. Work & Stress, 28(2), 124-142.

Bedük, A., & Ata, N. (2019). Mobbing ile örgütsel bağlılık ilişkisi üzerine bir araştırma: belediye otobüs şoförleri örneğ. Journal of International Social Research, 12(62), 1182-1193.

Blanco-Donoso, L. M., Amutio, A., Moreno-Jiménez, B., del Carmen Yeo-Ayala, M., Hermosilla, D. & Garrosa, E. (2019). Incivility at work, upset at home? Testing the cross-level moderation effect of emotional dysregulation among female nurses from primary health care. Scandinavian journal of psychology, 60(3), 267-276.

Blau, G. & Andersson, L. (2005). Testing a measure of instigated workplace incivility. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 78(4), 595-614.

Bunk, J. A., Karabin, J., & Lear, T. (2011). Understanding why workers engage in rude behaviors: A social interactionist perspective. Current Psychology, 30(1), 74-80.

Chang, Y., Shaolong, H., & Xing, Y. (2009). An empirical research on the mechanism of service recovery and customer loyalty in network retail. International Conference on Computational Intelligence and Software Engineering, 1-4.

Cortina, L. M., Magley, V. J., Williams, J. H., & Langhout, R. D. (2001). Incivility in the workplace: incidence and impact. Journal of occupational health psychology, 6(1), 64-80.

Cortina, L. M. (2008). Unseen injustice: Incivility as modern discrimination in organizations. Academy of Management Review, 33(1), 55-75.

Cortina, L. M.. & Magley, V. (2009). Patterns and profiles of response to incivility in the workplace. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 14, 272-288.

Delen, M.G. (2010). Çalışma hayatında işyeri kabalığı olgusu. İstanbul Üniversitesi İktisat Fakültesi Maliye Araştırma Merkezi Konferansları, 53. Seri, 43-58.

Demsky, C. A., Fritz, C., Hammer, L.B., & Black, A. E. (2019). Workplace incivility and employee sleep: The role of rumination and recovery experiences. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 24(2), 228-240.

Elder, B., Lloyd, S. & Laurie S. S. (2004). Strategıes for dealing with Professional incivility-A comparison of the accounting and legal professions. Journal of Accounting & Finance Research, 12(5), 82-94.

Erdoğan, H. E. & Araslı, H. (2007). Measuring the Impact of Organizational Responses: Case of Northen Cyprus Hotels. Managing Global Transitions, 5, 271-287.

Fagundes, D. (2016). Buying happiness: property, acquisition, and subjective well-being. William & Mary Law Review, 58, 1851-1931.

Folger, R., & Konovsky, M.A. (1989). Effects of procedural and distributive justice on reactions to pay raise decisions. Academy of Management Journal, 32(1), 115-130.

Goodwin, C. & Ross, I. (1990). Consumer evaluations of responses to complaints: What’s fair and why. The Journal of Consumer Marketing, 7(2), 39-47.

Griffin, B. (2010). Multilevel relationships between organizational-level incivility, justice and intention to stay. Work & Stress, 24(4), 309- 323.

Han, S. J., Bonn, M. A., & Cho, M. (2016). The relationship between customer incivility, restaurant frontline service employee burnout and turnover intention. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 52, 97-106.

Hogg, M. K. (1998). Anti-Constellations: exploring the impact of negation on consumption. Journal of Marketing Management, 14, 133-158.

Holm, K., Torkelson, E., & Bäckström, M. (2015). Models of workplace incivility: The relationships to instigated incivility and negative outcomes. Bio Med research international, 2015, 1-10.

Homburg, C. & Fürst, A. (2005). How organizational complaint handling drives customer loyalty: An analysis of the mechanistic and the organic approach. Journal of Marketing, 69(3), 95-114.

Johnson, P. R. & Indvik, J. (2001). Slings and arrows of rudeness: Incivility in the workplace. Journal of Management Development, 20(8), 705-714.

Johnson, P. R. & Indvik, J. (2001). Rudeness at work: Impulse over restraint. Public personnel management, 30(4), 457-465.

Kavaliauske, M. & Simanaviciute, E. (2015). Brand avoidance: Relations between brand-related stimuli and negative emotions. Organizations and Markets in Emerging Economies, 6(1), 44- 77.

Kern, J. H., & Grandey, A. A. (2009). Customer incivility as a social stressor: The role of race and racial identity for service employees. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 14(1), 46-57.

Kılıç, T., Çiftçi, F., & Şener, Ş. (2016). Sağlık çalışanlarında mobbing ve ilişkili faktörler. Sağlık ve Hemşirelik Yönetimi Dergisi, 3(2), 65-72.

Kim, G., Heejung, R., Hutchinson, J., & Kwun, D. J. (2014). The effect of jay-customer behaviors on employee job stress and job satisfaction. International Journal of Hospitality & Tourism Administration, 15(4), 394-416.

Kutlu, A. & Bilgin, N. (2017). İşyeri nezaketsizlik ölçeğinin hemşireler üzerinde türkçe geçerlik ve güvenirliği çalışması. Sağlık ve Hemşirelik Yönetimi Dergisi, 2(4), 56-62.

Lee, J. (2018). Can a rude waiter makeyour food less tasty? Social class differences in thinking style and carryover in consumer judgments. Journal of Consumer Psychology, 28(3), 450-465.

Lee, M. S.W., Motion, J., & Conroy, D. (2009). Anti-consumption and brand avoidance. Journal of Business Research, 62, 169-180.

Leymann, H., & Gustafsson, A. (1996). Mobbing at work and the development of post-traumatic stress disorders. European Journal of work and organizational psychology, 5(2), 251-275.

Leymann, H. (1990). Mobbing and psychological terror at workplaces. Violence and victims, 5(2), 119-126.

Leymann, H. (1996). The content and development of mobbing at work. European journal of work and organizational psychology, 5(2), 165-184.

Lim, S., & Lee, A. (2011). Work and nonwork outcomes of workplace incivility: Does family support help?. Journal of occupational health psychology, 16(1), 95-111.

Lim, S., Cortina, L.M. & Magley, V. J. (2008). Personal and workgroup incivility: Impact on work and health outcomes. Journal of applied psychology, 93(1), 95-107.

Maxham, J. G. & Netemeyer, R.G. (2003). Firms reap what they sow: The effects of shared values and perceived organizational justice on customers’ evaluations of complaint handling. Journal of Marketing, 67(1), 46-62.

McCarthy, K. A. (2016). Is rudeness really that common? An exploratory study of incivility at work. Journal of Organizational Computing and Electronic Commerce, 26(4), 364-374.

Miner, K. N. & Cortina, L. M. (2016). Observed workplace incivility toward women, perceptions of interpersonal in justice, and observer occupational well-being: Differential effects for gender of the observer. Frontiers in psychology, 7, 482.

Namie, G. (2003). Workplace bullying: Escalated incivility. Ivey Business Journal, 68(2), 1-6.

Niedl, K. (1996). Mobbing and well-being: Economic and personnel development implications. European journal of work and organizational psychology, 5(2), 239-249.

Pearson, C. M., Lynne, A. M., & Porath, C. (2000). Assessing and attacking workplace incivility. Organizational dynamics, 29(2), 123- 137.

Penney, L., M., & Spector, P. E. (2005). Job stress, incivility, and counterproductive work behavior (CWB): The moderating role of negative affectivity. Journal of Organizational Behavior: The International Journal of Industrial, Occupational and Organizational Psychology and Behavior, 26(7), 777-796.

Porath, C. L., & Pearson, C.M. (2012). Emotional and behavioral responses to workplace incivility and the impact of hierarchical status. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 42, E326-E357.

Porath, C. & Pearson, C. (2013). The price of incivility. Harvard business review, 91(1-2), 115-121.

Porath, C. L. & Erez, A. (2007). Does rudeness really matter? The effects of rudeness on task performance and helpfulness. Academy of Management Journal, 50(5), 1181-1197.

Porath, C. L., Foulk, T. & Erez, A. (2015). How incivility hijacks performance. Organizational Dynamics, 4(44), 258-265.

Porath, C., MacInnis, D., & Folkes, V. (2010). Witnessing Incivility among Employees: Effects on Consumer Anger and Negative Inferences about Companies. Journal of Consumer Research, 37 (2), 292-303.

Rhee, S.Y., Hur, W.W. & Minsung, K. (2017). The relationship of coworker incivility to job performance and the moderating role of self-efficacy and compassion at work: The Job Demands-Resources (JDR) Approach. Journal of Business and Psychology, 32(6), 711-726.

Rose, R., & Neidermeyer, M. (1999). From Rudeness to Road Rage: The Antecedentsand Consequences of Consumer Aggression. Advances in Consumer Research, 26, 12-17.

Saraçoğlu, S., & Öztürk, F. (2017). Sağlık hizmetlerine yönelik talebin belirleyicileri: Türkiye üzerine bir uygulama. İş ve Hayat, 293-342.

Schilpzand, P., Irene E. D.P. & Erez, A. (2016a). Workplace incivility: A review of the literature and agenda for future research. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 37, 57-88.

Schilpzand, P., Leavitt, K., & Lim, S. (2016b). Incivility hates company: Shared incivility attenuates rumination, stress, and psychological withdrawal by reducing self-blame. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 133, 33-44.

Sliter, M., Sliter, K. & Jex, S. (2012). The employee as a punching bag: The effect of multiple sources of incivility on employee withdrawal behavior and sales performance. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 33(1), 121-139.

Smith, A. K. & Bolton, R. N. (2002). The effect of customers’ emotional responses to service failures on their recovery effort evaluations and satisfaction judgments. Journal of the academy of marketing science, 30(1), 5-23.

Spector, P. E. & Jex, S. M. (1998). Development of four self-report measures of job stressors and strain. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 3(4), 356-367.

Tarraf, R. C., Matthew J.W. ML., & Finegan, J.E. (2019). Dispositional mind fulness buffers against incivility outcomes: A moderated mediation model. Personality and Individual Differences, 138, 140- 146.

Tetik, S. (2010). Mobbing kavramı: Birey ve örgütler açısından önemi. Karamanoğlu Mehmetbey Üniversitesi Sosyal ve Ekonomik Araştırmalar Dergisi, 2010(1), 81-89.

Tınaz, P. (2006). İşyerinde psikolojik taciz (Mobbing). Çalışma ve Toplum, 2996/4, 13-28.

Torres, E. N., Niekerk, M.V., & Orlowkski, M. (2017). Customer and employee incivility and its causal effects in the hospitality industry. Journal of Hospitality Marketing & Management, 26(1), 48-66.

Walker, D. D., Van Jaarsveld, D., & Skarlicki, D. P. (2014). Exploring the effects of individual customer incivility encounters on employee incivility: The moderating roles of entity (in)civility and negative affectivity. Journal of Applied Psychology, 99(1), 151-161.

Yagil, D. (2008). When the customer is wrong: A review of research on aggression and sexual harassment in service encounters. Aggression and Violent Behavior, 13, 141-152.

Yıldız, S.M., Yıldız, B., & Kepoğlu, A. (2018). Mobbing davranışlarının amatör futbolcuların tükenmişliğine etkisi. CBÜ Beden Eğitimi ve Spor Bilimleri Dergisi, 13(2), 231-246.

Yıldırım, A., & Yıldırım, D. (2007). Mobbing in the workplace by peers and managers: mobbing experienced by nurses working in healthcare facilities in Turkey and its effect on nurses. Journal of clinical nursing, 16(8), 1444-1453.

Zapf, D., Knorz, C., & Kulla, M. (1996). On the relationship between mobbing factors, and job content, social work environment, and health outcomes. European Journal of work and organizational psychology, 5(2), 215-237.

___