İMPARATOR’UN DÖNÜŞÜ: NICOMEDIA FRIZINE AİT ÇALINAN İMPARATOR RÖLYEFİ’NİN TEKNİK VE İKONOGRAFİK DEĞERLENDİRMESİ

Bu makale 2009 İzmit (Nicomedia) Çukurbağ Kurtarma Kazıları sonrasında çalınan ve 2019 yılında Türkiye Anıtlarve Müzeler Müdürlüğü Kaçakçılıkla Mücadele Dairesi’nin girişimleri ile bulunduğu Almanya Münih’ten, ait olduğuKocaeli Arkeoloji Müzesi’ne getirilen Geç Roma Dönemi boyalı mermer kabartmasının (rölyef paneli) ilk akademikdeğerlendirmesini ve belgelenmesini içerir. Detaylı teknik ve ikonografik incelemede, rölyef panelinin MS. 3.yüzyıl sonunda başkent Nicomedia’da, ikili imparatorlar Diokletianus ve Maximianus döneminde inşa edilmiş olandev imparatorluk kompleksinin içini süsleyen ve toplam uzunluğu 55 metreyi bulan boyalı mermer rölyef frizininbir parçası olduğu anlaşılmıştır. Rölyef paneli, kaçırılma sırasında kırılan ve Kocaeli Arkeoloji Müzesi deposundabekletilen diğer küçük parçaları ile birleştirilerek orijinal bağlamında yeniden değerlendirilmiştir. Rölyefin üzerindebir değil iki imparatorun, aralarında da çelenk tutan tanrıça Nike’nin tasvir edildiği ve panelin Nicomedia frizinin diğerpanelleriyle birlikte, imparatorluk kompleksinin içindeki entabletüre yerleştirildikten sonra boyandığı anlaşılmıştır.Rölyef üzerinde iyi korunan boyalar üzerinde yapılan mikroskobik inceleme eserin yapımında kullanılan pigmentiçerikleri ve ikonografik anlatımda renk kodları gibi birçok yeni veriye ulaşmamızı sağlamıştır. İmparatorlarınınsavaş zaferini simgeleyen rölyef, Nicomedia frizindeki diğer imparatorluk tasvirleri gibi, imparatorluk kültü tapınımıve kutlamaları çerçevesinde kullanılmıştır.

RETURN OF THE EMPEROR: TECHNICAL AND ICONOGRAPHIC ANALYSIS OF THE STOLEN EMPEROR RELIEF FROM THE NICOMEDIA FRIEZE

This article includes the first academic documentation and evaluation of a Late Roman painted marble relief which was stolen right after its discovery in 2009 Izmit (Nicomedia) during Çukurbağ Salvage Excavations; later recovered in Munich, Germany, and brought back to Kocaeli Archaeology Museum in 2019 with the initiative of the Ministry of Culture and Tourism, General Directorate of Cultural Properties and Museums, Department of Anti-Smuggling. The detailed technical and iconographic examination of the relief panel showed that it belonged to the c. 55 meters long painted marble frieze which adorned a monumental imperial complex built in the late 3rd century AD in Nicomedia, during the time of co-emperors Diocletian and Maximian. The relief panel was re-evaluated in its original context; it was rejoined with its other parts that were broken during the smuggling and kept in the storage of Kocaeli Archaeology Museum. The study showed that the relief panel had a representation of not one but two emperors and a garlandbearing Nike in between them; it was painted together with other panels of the Nicomedia frieze after they were placed in the entablature within the imperial complex. Microscopic examination of the well-preserved paints on the relief has provided us many new information such as pigment compositions used for the coloring or the use of colorcoding for iconographic expression. The relief, symbolizing the victory of the emperors in war, must have functioned within the imperial cult worship and celebrations, just like the other imperial depictions on the Nicomedia frieze.

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